09/24/2017

BIOCHEMISTRY- important note for INDIAN medical mci screening entrance exam

By Live Dr - Wed Feb 11, 2:29 am

BIOCHEMISTRY

BIOCHEMISTRY

 

Essential amino
acids

Mnemonic

MATTVILPhLy

Methionine

Arginine

Threonine

Tryptophan

Valine

Isoleucine

Leucine

Phenylalanine

Lysine

Semiessential
aminoacids

Histidine

Arginine

 

PROTEIN STRUCTURE

STRUCTURE

BONDS

DETECTION

Primary

Peptide bonds

Edman’s degeneration technique

Secondary

Hydrogen

X-ray diffraction, crystallography, and nuclear magnetic
resonance.

Tertiary

Disulfide

————–do———–

Quaternary

————–do————

 

structure of proteins

Primary structure

Linear sequence of amino acids, consisting of peptide
bonds

Secondary structure

Special structure of proteins, by twisting of polypeptide
chains, consisting of alpha helix and beta pleated sheets

Tertiary structure

Three dimensional structure of functional proteins

Quaternary structure

Spatial arrangement of subunits composed of polypeptide
chains

 

QUOTE
CORNER

Success
is the good fortune that comes from aspiration, desperation, perspiration and
inspiration.-Evan Esar

 

 

 

 

ELEVENTH
HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                        
29

PROTEIN

FUNCTION

Alpha 1 antitrypsin

Inhibitor of trypsin

Alpha 1 lipoprotein

Transport of cholesterol and phospholipids

Alpha 2 microglobulin

Antitrypsin and antiplasmin activity

Haptoglobin

Binds with free hemoglobin

Ceruloplasmin

Transports copper

Hemopexin

Transports heme

 

Ubiquitin

Eukaryotic protein for degradation of intracellular
proteins

Chaperones

 

Proteins which play a role in the assembly or proper
folding of other Proteins without themselves being components of the latter

 

Creatinine

Methionine + Arginine + Glycine

Glutathione

Glutamine + Cystine + Glycine

 

BENEDICTS TEST FOR DETECTING SUGAR IN URINE

Just pale green

Trace

0-100mg %

Greenish precipitate

+

100-500mg%

Greenish yellow precipitate

++

500-1000 mg %

Yellowish orange precipitate

+++

1000-2000mg%

Brick red precipitate

++++

>2000mg %

 

*Polarimeter is used to measure optical activity

 

Apolipoproteins

lipid

apolipoproteins

Chylomicron

A I, A II, B 48

VLDL

B100, C I, C II, C III. E

LDL

B100

HDL

AI, AII, CI, C II, C III, D, E.

 

Chylomicron

Transports exogenous triglycerides

VLDL

Transports endogenous triglyceride

LDL

Transports cholesterol to peripheral tissues

HDL

Transports cholesterol from peripheral tissues to liver
for degradation.

 

*The triene-tetraene ratio in plasma lipids can be used to
diagnose extent of essential fatty acid deficiency

 

TRIVIAL
TRUTH

During
the Alaskan Klondike gold rush, (1897-1898) potatoes were practically worth
their weight in gold. Potatoes were so valued for their vitamin C content
that miners traded gold for potatoes.

 

ELEVENTH
HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                      
                  30

VITAMIN

COENZYME FORM

Thiamine

 TPP

 TDP

Riboflavin

FAD

FMN

Niacin

NAD

NADP

Pantothenic acid

CoA

Acyl carrier protein

Pyridoxine

Pyridoxal phosphate

Folic acid

Tetrahydrofolate

 

ENZYME / SUBSTANCE MARKERS OF VITAMIN DEFECIENCIES

Deficient vitamin

Enzyme/ Substance
marker

B1

RBC transketolase

B2

RBC glutathione peroxidase

B6

Urine xanthurenic acid

Folic acid

Urine FIGLU

B12

Urine methylmalonic acid

 

Specific dynamic
action    

substance

%

Protein

30

Fat

13

Carbohydrates

5

 

Respiratory quotient

substance

R.Q.

Carbohydrates

1

Protein

0.8

Fat

0.7

 

Nucleoside

Pentose + N-base

Nucleotide

Nucleoside + phosphate

Nucleic acid

Polymerization of nucleotides

 

*Shine-Dalgarno sequence

A polypurine sequence in bacterial mrna, 7 nucleotides in front of initiation codon aug. it is involved in binding of mrna to ribosome, and hence initiation
of protein synthesis.

 

QUOTE
CORNER

All
misfortune is but a stepping stone to fortune. Henry David Thoreau

 

ELEVENTH
HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                         31

CELL ORGANELLES WITH THEIR ENZYME MARKERS

ORGANELLE

ENZYME MARKER

Peroxisomes

Catalase, Uric acid
oxidase

Endoplasmic reticulum

Glucose-6-phosphatase

Mitochondria

Glutamate
dehydrogenate

Lysosome

Acid phosphatase

Plasma membrane

5’ nucleotidase ,
Adenylyl cyclase , Na-K ATPase

Inner mitochondrial
membrane

ATP synthase

Nucleus

DNA

Ribosome

RNA

Golgi apparatus

Galactosyl transferase

Cytosol

Lactate dehydrogenase

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INHIBITION TYPE

MECHANISM

Competitive inhibition

Inhibitor competes with the substrate and binds to the
active site of the enzyme but doesn’t undergo any catalysis

Non-competitive inhibition

The inhibitor has no structural resemblance with substrate
and binds at a site other than the active site bon the enzyme surface and
thus impairs enzyme function

Uncompetitive inhibition

Inhibitor doesn’t bind with the enzyme, but only binds
with the enzyme-substrate complex

Allosteric inhibition

The allosteric modulator binds to the allosteric site and
regulates enzyme activity

 

DISEASES WITH THEIR ENZYME DEFICIENCIES.

DISEASE

ENZYME DEFICIENCY

Criggler-Najjar

UDP-glucuronyl transferase

Von-Gierke’s

Glucose -6- phosphatase

Pompe’s

Acid maltase( Acid α glucosidase)

Mc Ardle’s

Muscle glycogen phosphorylase

Tarui’s disease

Muscle phosphorylase

Niemann-Pick’s

Sphingomyelinase

Farber’s

Ceramidase

Gaucher’s

β-glucosidase

Krabbe’s

β-galactosidase

Tay-Sach’s

Hexosaminidase-A

 

TRIVIAL
TRUTH

The
chemical n-acetyl-cysteine found in raw eggs is proven to help hangovers

 

ELEVENTH
HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                        
32

DISEASES WITH THEIR ENZYME DEFICIENCIES CONTINUED..

DISEASE

ENZYME DEFICIENCY

Phenylketonuria

Phenylalanine hydroxylase

Alkaptonuria

Homogentisate oxidase

Albinism

Tyrosinase

Fabry’s

α-galactosidase

Metachromatic leucodystrophy

Arylsulphatase A

Gyrate atrophy of retina

Ornithine d-transaminase

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

HGPRT

Sandhoff

Hexosaminidase-β

Wolmann

Acid lipase

MPS-1 / Hurler’s syndrome

α-L-iduronidase

MPS-2

L-iduronosulphate

Xeroderma pigmentosum

DNA exinuclease

Sudden infant death syndrome

Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase

Maroteaux Lamy syndrome

Arylsulphatase β

Maple syrup urine

Branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase

Acute Intermittent Porphyria

Uroporphyrinogen-1 synthase

Congenital erythropoeitic porphyria

Uroporphyrinogen-3 cosynthase

Porphyria cutanea tarda

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase

Erythropoeitic porphyria

Ferrochelatase

Maple syrup urine disease

Alpha ketoacid decarboxylase

Hereditary fructose intolerance

Aldolase b

Fructosuria

Fructokinase b

Galctosemia

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase

Essential pentosuria

Xylitol dehydrogenase

Mucolipidosis type I / Sialidosis

Sialidase / Neuraminidase

 

Enzyme therapy

Gaucher’s disease

Cerezyme-recombinantly produced mannose-terminated acid
beta glucosidase

Stem cell gene therapy

SCID

 

Rate limiting steps

reactions

rate limiting
enzymes

Bile acid synthesis

7 alpha hydroxylase

Cholesterol synthesis

HMG- coA synthetase

Urea synthesis

Carbamoyl phosphate synthase I

Glycolysis

Phosphofructokinase

 

QUOTE CORNER

Self confidence is the first requisite to
great undertakings-Samuel Johnson

 

ELEVENTH
HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                        
                33

Rate limiting steps

reactions

rate limiting
enzymes

Porphyrin synthesis

ALA
synthetase

Fatty acid synthesis

Acetyl CoA carboxylase

Uric acid synthesis

Xanthine oxidase

Denovo purine biosynthesis

PRPP synthetase

 

Glycolysis

Location

Cytosol

Substrate level phosphorylation

Phosphoglycerate kinase

Pyruvate kinase

Inhibitors

Fluoride-Enolase

Oxamate- Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase

Bromohydroxycaetone phosphate-Phosphate isomerase

Irreversible steps

Hexokinase

Phosphofructokinase

Pyruvate kinase

 

TCA

Location

Mitochondria

Substrate level phosphorylation

Succinate thiokinase

Inhibitors

Arsenite-Alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

Malonate- Succinate dehydrogenase

Fluoroacetate / Fluorocitrate- Aconitase

Energy

1 Acetyl CoA

12 ATP

1 mole of glucose gives

 

2 ATP anaerobically

38 ATP aerobically

 

Phenylketonuria

Autosomal recessive inheritance

Deficiency

Phenylalanine hydroxylase

Neurological signs, mental retardation

As brain cell are deprived of essential amino acids

High phenylalanine concentration

Results in competitive inhibition of tyrosine leading to-

Blonde hair

Blue eyes

Fair skin

Accessory metabolic pathway leads to

Accumulation of phenylacetic acid and other metabolites
leading to mousy odour

 

TRIVIAL
TRUTH

The
average cup of coffee contains more than 1000 different chemical components,
none of which is tasted in isolation but only as part of the overall flavour.

 

ELEVENTH
HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                   
                                     34

Phenylketonuria
continued…

Diagnosis

Provocative protein meal test

A plasma phenylalanine level > 20 mg/dl

A normal plasma tyrosine level

Screening tests

Guthrie’s test ferric chloride solution-green Colour

2,4 dinitrophenol hydrazine-yellow precipitate

Treatment

Low phenylalanine levels, however it should not be
completely eliminated

Tyrosine becomes essential, hence adequate intake should
be ensured

 

*Hartnup’s disease-

Hereditary disorder of Tryptophan metabolism

Clinical symptoms include dermatitis, ataxia, and mental
retardation.

Characterised by low plasma levels of Tryptophan and their
elevated urinary excretion.

 

Hb S

Substitution of glutamate by valine  in B chain in the 6th  position

Hb C

Substitution of glutamate by lysine in B chain in the 6th  position

Hb D

Substitution of glutamate by valine in B chain in the 12th  position

Hb E

Substitution of glutamate by lysine in  chain in the 26th  position

 

Valine replaced at 67th position of the B chain
of Hb A molecule

Hemoglobin type(functionally similar)

Aspartate

Hb Bristol

Glutamate

Hb Milwaukee

Alanine

Hb Sydney

 

LDH1

Heart and RBC

LDH2

Heart and RBC

LDH3

Brain and kidney

LDH4

Liver and skeletal muscle

LDH5

Skeletal muscle and liver

 

CPK1- BB

Brain

CPK2- MB

Heart

CPK3- MM

Muscle

 

QUOTE
CORNER

It
does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.- Confucius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ELEVENTH
HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                           
             35

characteristics

hemolytic jaundice

obstructive
jaundice

hepatic jaundice

Serum bilirubin

Unconjugated bilirubin increased

Conjugate bilirubin is increased

both are increased

Urine bilirubin

Absent

++

+

Urobilinogen in urine

+

Absent

absent

Stercobilinogen

++

absent

decreased

Feces colour

Black

very pale

pale

Urine colour

No change

very dark

dark

 

Uncouplers of
electron transport chain are

2,4 dinitrophenol

Dinitrocresol

Pentachlorophenol

Triflurocarbonyl

Aspirin

Thyroxin

Long chain free fatty acids

Unconjugated bilirubin

 

Muscle cells

Can utilize glucose, fatty acids and ketone bodies

Brain

Can utilize ketone bodies and glucose

Hepatocytes

Cannot utilize ketone bodies

 

*Liver cannot utilize ketone bodies

As it lack the enzyme necessary to convert acetoacetate to
acetoacetyl co A

 

 

 

TRIVIAL
TRUTH

The prohibition of posthumously awarding
Nobel prize fails to recognise achievements by a collaborator who happens to
die before the prize is awarded. Rosalind Franklin, who was key in the
discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, died of ovarian cancer in 1958,
four years before Francis Crick, James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins were
awarded the Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1962.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ELEVENTH
HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                        
36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essential amino acids

Mnemonic

MATTVILPhLy

Methionine

Arginine

Threonine

Tryptophan

Valine

Isoleucine

Leucine

Phenylalanine

Lysine

Semiessential aminoacids

Histidine

Arginine

PROTEIN STRUCTURE

STRUCTURE

BONDS

DETECTION

Primary

Peptide bonds

Edman’s degeneration technique

Secondary

Hydrogen

X-ray diffraction, crystallography, and nuclear magnetic resonance.

Tertiary

Disulfide

————–do———–

Quaternary

————–do————

structure of proteins

Primary structure

Linear sequence of amino acids, consisting of peptide bonds

Secondary structure

Special structure of proteins, by twisting of polypeptide chains, consisting of alpha helix and beta pleated sheets

Tertiary structure

Three dimensional structure of functional proteins

Quaternary structure

Spatial arrangement of subunits composed of polypeptide chains

QUOTE CORNER

Success is the good fortune that comes from aspiration, desperation, perspiration and inspiration.-Evan Esar

ELEVENTH HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                         29

PROTEIN

FUNCTION

Alpha 1 antitrypsin

Inhibitor of trypsin

Alpha 1 lipoprotein

Transport of cholesterol and phospholipids

Alpha 2 microglobulin

Antitrypsin and antiplasmin activity

Haptoglobin

Binds with free hemoglobin

Ceruloplasmin

Transports copper

Hemopexin

Transports heme

Ubiquitin

Eukaryotic protein for degradation of intracellular proteins

Chaperones

Proteins which play a role in the assembly or proper folding of other Proteins without themselves being components of the latter

Creatinine

Methionine + Arginine + Glycine

Glutathione

Glutamine + Cystine + Glycine

BENEDICTS TEST FOR DETECTING SUGAR IN URINE

Just pale green

Trace

0-100mg %

Greenish precipitate

+

100-500mg%

Greenish yellow precipitate

++

500-1000 mg %

Yellowish orange precipitate

+++

1000-2000mg%

Brick red precipitate

++++

>2000mg %

*Polarimeter is used to measure optical activity

Apolipoproteins

lipid

apolipoproteins

Chylomicron

A I, A II, B 48

VLDL

B100, C I, C II, C III. E

LDL

B100

HDL

AI, AII, CI, C II, C III, D, E.

Chylomicron

Transports exogenous triglycerides

VLDL

Transports endogenous triglyceride

LDL

Transports cholesterol to peripheral tissues

HDL

Transports cholesterol from peripheral tissues to liver for degradation.

*The triene-tetraene ratio in plasma lipids can be used to diagnose extent of essential fatty acid deficiency

TRIVIAL TRUTH

During the Alaskan Klondike gold rush, (1897-1898) potatoes were practically worth their weight in gold. Potatoes were so valued for their vitamin C content that miners traded gold for potatoes.

ELEVENTH HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                         30

VITAMIN

COENZYME FORM

Thiamine

TPP

TDP

Riboflavin

FAD

FMN

Niacin

NAD

NADP

Pantothenic acid

CoA

Acyl carrier protein

Pyridoxine

Pyridoxal phosphate

Folic acid

Tetrahydrofolate

ENZYME / SUBSTANCE MARKERS OF VITAMIN DEFECIENCIES

Deficient vitamin

Enzyme/ Substance marker

B1

RBC transketolase

B2

RBC glutathione peroxidase

B6

Urine xanthurenic acid

Folic acid

Urine FIGLU

B12

Urine methylmalonic acid

Specific dynamic action

substance

%

Protein

30

Fat

13

Carbohydrates

5

Respiratory quotient

substance

R.Q.

Carbohydrates

1

Protein

0.8

Fat

0.7

Nucleoside

Pentose + N-base

Nucleotide

Nucleoside + phosphate

Nucleic acid

Polymerization of nucleotides

*Shine-Dalgarno sequence

A polypurine sequence in bacterial mrna, 7 nucleotides in front of initiation codon aug. it is involved in binding of mrna to ribosome, and hence initiation of protein synthesis.

QUOTE CORNER

All misfortune is but a stepping stone to fortune. Henry David Thoreau

ELEVENTH HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                         31

CELL ORGANELLES WITH THEIR ENZYME MARKERS

ORGANELLE

ENZYME MARKER

Peroxisomes

Catalase, Uric acid oxidase

Endoplasmic reticulum

Glucose-6-phosphatase

Mitochondria

Glutamate dehydrogenate

Lysosome

Acid phosphatase

Plasma membrane

5′ nucleotidase , Adenylyl cyclase , Na-K ATPase

Inner mitochondrial membrane

ATP synthase

Nucleus

DNA

Ribosome

RNA

Golgi apparatus

Galactosyl transferase

Cytosol

Lactate dehydrogenase

INHIBITION TYPE

MECHANISM

Competitive inhibition

Inhibitor competes with the substrate and binds to the active site of the enzyme but doesn’t undergo any catalysis

Non-competitive inhibition

The inhibitor has no structural resemblance with substrate and binds at a site other than the active site bon the enzyme surface and thus impairs enzyme function

Uncompetitive inhibition

Inhibitor doesn’t bind with the enzyme, but only binds with the enzyme-substrate complex

Allosteric inhibition

The allosteric modulator binds to the allosteric site and regulates enzyme activity

DISEASES WITH THEIR ENZYME DEFICIENCIES.

DISEASE

ENZYME DEFICIENCY

Criggler-Najjar

UDP-glucuronyl transferase

Von-Gierke’s

Glucose -6- phosphatase

Pompe’s

Acid maltase( Acid α glucosidase)

Mc Ardle’s

Muscle glycogen phosphorylase

Tarui’s disease

Muscle phosphorylase

Niemann-Pick’s

Sphingomyelinase

Farber’s

Ceramidase

Gaucher’s

β-glucosidase

Krabbe’s

β-galactosidase

Tay-Sach’s

Hexosaminidase-A

TRIVIAL TRUTH

The chemical n-acetyl-cysteine found in raw eggs is proven to help hangovers

ELEVENTH HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                         32

DISEASES WITH THEIR ENZYME DEFICIENCIES CONTINUED..

DISEASE

ENZYME DEFICIENCY

Phenylketonuria

Phenylalanine hydroxylase

Alkaptonuria

Homogentisate oxidase

Albinism

Tyrosinase

Fabry’s

α-galactosidase

Metachromatic leucodystrophy

Arylsulphatase A

Gyrate atrophy of retina

Ornithine d-transaminase

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

HGPRT

Sandhoff

Hexosaminidase-β

Wolmann

Acid lipase

MPS-1 / Hurler’s syndrome

α-L-iduronidase

MPS-2

L-iduronosulphate

Xeroderma pigmentosum

DNA exinuclease

Sudden infant death syndrome

Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase

Maroteaux Lamy syndrome

Arylsulphatase β

Maple syrup urine

Branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase

Acute Intermittent Porphyria

Uroporphyrinogen-1 synthase

Congenital erythropoeitic porphyria

Uroporphyrinogen-3 cosynthase

Porphyria cutanea tarda

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase

Erythropoeitic porphyria

Ferrochelatase

Maple syrup urine disease

Alpha ketoacid decarboxylase

Hereditary fructose intolerance

Aldolase b

Fructosuria

Fructokinase b

Galctosemia

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase

Essential pentosuria

Xylitol dehydrogenase

Mucolipidosis type I / Sialidosis

Sialidase / Neuraminidase

Enzyme therapy

Gaucher’s disease

Cerezyme-recombinantly produced mannose-terminated acid beta glucosidase

Stem cell gene therapy

SCID

Rate limiting steps

reactions

rate limiting enzymes

Bile acid synthesis

7 alpha hydroxylase

Cholesterol synthesis

HMG- coA synthetase

Urea synthesis

Carbamoyl phosphate synthase I

Glycolysis

Phosphofructokinase

QUOTE CORNER

Self confidence is the first requisite to great undertakings-Samuel Johnson

ELEVENTH HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                         33

Rate limiting steps

reactions

rate limiting enzymes

Porphyrin synthesis

ALA synthetase

Fatty acid synthesis

Acetyl CoA carboxylase

Uric acid synthesis

Xanthine oxidase

Denovo purine biosynthesis

PRPP synthetase

Glycolysis

Location

Cytosol

Substrate level phosphorylation

Phosphoglycerate kinase

Pyruvate kinase

Inhibitors

Fluoride-Enolase

Oxamate- Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase

Bromohydroxycaetone phosphate-Phosphate isomerase

Irreversible steps

Hexokinase

Phosphofructokinase

Pyruvate kinase

TCA

Location

Mitochondria

Substrate level phosphorylation

Succinate thiokinase

Inhibitors

Arsenite-Alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

Malonate- Succinate dehydrogenase

Fluoroacetate / Fluorocitrate- Aconitase

Energy

1 Acetyl CoA

12 ATP

1 mole of glucose gives

2 ATP anaerobically

38 ATP aerobically

Phenylketonuria

Autosomal recessive inheritance

Deficiency

Phenylalanine hydroxylase

Neurological signs, mental retardation

As brain cell are deprived of essential amino acids

High phenylalanine concentration

Results in competitive inhibition of tyrosine leading to-

Blonde hair

Blue eyes

Fair skin

Accessory metabolic pathway leads to

Accumulation of phenylacetic acid and other metabolites leading to mousy odour

TRIVIAL TRUTH

The average cup of coffee contains more than 1000 different chemical components, none of which is tasted in isolation but only as part of the overall flavour.

ELEVENTH HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                         34

Phenylketonuria continued…

Diagnosis

Provocative protein meal test

A plasma phenylalanine level > 20 mg/dl

A normal plasma tyrosine level

Screening tests

Guthrie’s test ferric chloride solution-green Colour

2,4 dinitrophenol hydrazine-yellow precipitate

Treatment

Low phenylalanine levels, however it should not be completely eliminated

Tyrosine becomes essential, hence adequate intake should be ensured

*Hartnup’s disease-

Hereditary disorder of Tryptophan metabolism

Clinical symptoms include dermatitis, ataxia, and mental retardation.

Characterised by low plasma levels of Tryptophan and their elevated urinary excretion.

Hb S

Substitution of glutamate by valine  in B chain in the 6th position

Hb C

Substitution of glutamate by lysine in B chain in the 6th position

Hb D

Substitution of glutamate by valine in B chain in the 12th position

Hb E

Substitution of glutamate by lysine in  chain in the 26th position

Valine replaced at 67th position of the B chain of Hb A molecule

Hemoglobin type(functionally similar)

Aspartate

Hb Bristol

Glutamate

Hb Milwaukee

Alanine

Hb Sydney

LDH1

Heart and RBC

LDH2

Heart and RBC

LDH3

Brain and kidney

LDH4

Liver and skeletal muscle

LDH5

Skeletal muscle and liver

CPK1- BB

Brain

CPK2- MB

Heart

CPK3- MM

Muscle

QUOTE CORNER

It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.- Confucius

ELEVENTH HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                         35

characteristics

hemolytic jaundice

obstructive jaundice

hepatic jaundice

Serum bilirubin

Unconjugated bilirubin increased

Conjugate bilirubin is increased

both are increased

Urine bilirubin

Absent

++

+

Urobilinogen in urine

+

Absent

absent

Stercobilinogen

++

absent

decreased

Feces colour

Black

very pale

pale

Urine colour

No change

very dark

dark

Uncouplers of electron transport chain are

2,4 dinitrophenol

Dinitrocresol

Pentachlorophenol

Triflurocarbonyl

Aspirin

Thyroxin

Long chain free fatty acids

Unconjugated bilirubin

Muscle cells

Can utilize glucose, fatty acids and ketone bodies

Brain

Can utilize ketone bodies and glucose

Hepatocytes

Cannot utilize ketone bodies

*Liver cannot utilize ketone bodies

As it lack the enzyme necessary to convert acetoacetate to acetoacetyl co A

TRIVIAL TRUTH

The prohibition of posthumously awarding Nobel prize fails to recognise achievements by a collaborator who happens to die before the prize is awarded. Rosalind Franklin, who was key in the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, died of ovarian cancer in 1958, four years before Francis Crick, James D. Watson and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1962.

ELEVENTH HOUR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                         36

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