09/24/2017

Chromosome types of their various kind modern genetics

By Live Dr - Sun Jan 11, 1:27 pm

Chromosome  1  (Group  A):  The  longest  chromosome,  metacentric   p  arm  fading at distal end, with at least two dark bands above centromere  q arm with a dark area just below centromere, a light band below, followed by four dark bands of which the middle two are often more intense.

Chromosome 2 (Group A): Almost as long as chromosome 1, submetacentric  p arm without light distal end, with four dark bands  q arm with more than four dark bands.

Chromosome 3 (Group A): Metacentric  both p and q arms with a large light band in the middle  dark area (consisting of two or three close dark bands) distal to the light band of q arm thicker than its counterpart in p arm.

Chromosome 4 (Group B): Very submetacentric  p arm with a thick dark band which may sometimes be resolved as double  q arm with a distinct, prominent dark band below centromere.

Chromosome 5   (Group B ): V ery  submetacentric  p  arm with a  single d ark band  q arm without a prominent dark band below centromere, with three close dark bands in the middle.

Chromosome 6 (Group C): Submetacentric  p arm with a distinct, large light band in the middle  q arm with several dark bands.

Chromosome 7 (Group C): Submetacentric  p arm with a prominent flat dark band at the top  q arm with two distinct dark bands followed by a much less intense dark band.

Chromosome 8 (Group C): Very submetacentric  p arm with two dark bands (sometimes unclear)  q arm with two (sometimes three) dark bands, the distal dark band characteristically more intense.

Chromosome  9  (Group  C):  Varying  from  slightly  submetacentric  to  very submetacentric  p arm with a broad (often square in shape ) dark band (which may be resolved as double)  q arm with a variable, proximal light area (from as long  as  the  p  arm  to  almost  non-existent)  followed  by  two  distinct,  equally intense broad dark bands with a light band between them  these three bands (two dark and one light) equal in thickness.

Chromosome 10 (Group C): Submetacentric  p arm with a dark band  q arm with three distinct dark bands, the proximal dark band most intense.

Chromosome 11 (Group C): Submetacentric  p arm with one or occasionallytwo dark bands  q arm with a very large light area followed by a dark band which may be resolved into two dark bands.

Chromosome 12 (Group C): Very submetacentric  p arm with a dark band  q arm with a proximal light band (which is relatively thinner than the counterpart of chromosome 11) followed by a dark area in the middle which may be resolved into two, or more often three, bands.

Chromosome  13  (Group  D):  Acrocentric   p  arm  with  satellites  (visible  or invisible)  q arm with several dark bands.

Chromosome  14  (Group  D):  Acrocentric   p  arm  with  satellites  (visible  or invisible)  q arm with a distal dark band which is more intense than other dark bands.

Chromosome  15  (Group  D):  Acrocentric   p  arm  with  satellites  (visible  or invisible)  q arm with dark proximal half and light distal half.

Chromosome  16  (Group  E):  Metacentric  or  occasionally  submetacentric   p arm  light  or  slightly  dark   q  arm  with  a  prominent  dark  band  just  below centromere, followed by one or two lesser dark bands.

Chromosome 1 7 ( Group E): S ubmetacentric  or v ery  submetacentric  p  a rm with a thin dark band (may be invisible)  centromere dark followed by a distinct, large light band occupying a large part of q arm, q arm with one or two distinct dark bands near the terminal end.

Chromosome 1 8 ( Group E): S ubmetacentric  or v ery  submetacentric  p  a rm often uniformly dark  q arm with two distinct dark bands, one proximal and one distal  the l ight band between these two dark bands slightly smaller  than  the counterpart of chromosome 17.

Chromosome 19 (Group F): Metacentric  p and q arms both light  centromere dark.

Chromosome 20 (Group F): Metacentric  p arm dark  q arm light, with two narrow, less intense dark bands.

Chromosome  21  (Group  G):  Acrocentric   p  arm  with  satellites  (visible  or invisible)  q arm with intense dark area proximally, fading out toward distal end.

Chromosome  22  (Group  G):  Acrocentric   p  arm  with  satellites  (visible  or invisible)  centromere dark  q arm with a narrow, less intense dark band.

X  Chromosome  (sex  chromosome):  Submetacentric   p  arm  with  distinct, strong dark band at the middle  q arm with a proximal dark band about the samedistance from the centromere as the p arm dark band, with two less intense dark bands near distal end.

Y Chromosome (sex chromosome): Very submetacentric  p arm very short or invisible  q arm dark throughout.

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