09/24/2017

doctors reveal the brain fear and article about tissue engineering

By Live Dr - Thu Feb 05, 11:29 am

Tissue engineering will speed

up oral wound

healing

A gum tissue or gingival substitute, developed by a Dutch research team, helps accelerate wound healing in oral cavity or mouth.
“Our results represent a large step forward in the area of clinical applications in oral tissue engineering, which until now have lagged behind skin tissue engineering,” said study author Susan Gibbs of the VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
Gibbs said skin substitutes have been far more advanced than oral gingival substitutes and until now no oral tissue-engineered products have been available for clinical applications.
The team was the first to develop an autologous (same patient) full thickness skin substitute that Gibbs said is “proving to be very successful”.
However, they wanted to develop an autologous, full thickness oral substitute with the correct oral characteristics.
“Reconstructive surgery within the oral cavity is required during tumour excision, cleft palate repair, trauma, repair of diseased tissue and for generating soft tissue around teeth and dental implants,” explained Gibbs.
“Drawbacks of using skin as an autograft material in the oral cavity include bulkiness, sweating and hair formation and the limited amount of donor tissue available,” she said.
They used small amounts of patient oral tissue obtained from biopsies, then cultured and expanded the tissues in vitro over a three-week period, said a VU University release.

How the brain manages

fear revealed

Although humans may have developed complex thought processes that can help to regulate their emotions, a new research has suggested that the processes are associated with evolutionarily older mechanisms that are common across species.
How the brain manages fear revealed
The research, which has been published in the September 11th issue of the journal Neuron, provides new insight into the way the brain manages fear.
The finding may guide exploration of novel pharmacological and therapeutic treatments for anxiety disorders.
“The ability to eliminate, control or diminish negative emotional responses is important for adaptive function and critical in the treatment of psychopathology,” said study author, Dr. Mauricio Delgado from Rutgers University.
He added: “Recent research examining the neural mechanisms for diminishing fears has focused on two techniques: extinction, which has been explored across species, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, which are unique to humans.”
In earlier research on rodents and humans, the scientists attributed extinction to activity in the amygdala and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). On the other hand, neural circuits underlying cognitive strategies to regulate emotions are not as well understood.
However, the New York University team led by Dr. Delgado and Dr. Elizabeth A. Phelps, were interested in examining the similarities and differences of diminishing fear through both techniques.
They used similar experimental paradigms with different means of controlling fear to directly compare the neural mechanisms that mediate extinction and emotional regulation.
Later, they paired a typical fear conditioning method with a measurement of physiological arousal to examine extinction. Also, they implemented a cognitive emotion regulation strategy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare the neural activation patterns of extinction and emotional regulation.
It was found that the lateral prefrontal cortex regions engaged by cognitive emotion regulation strategies influenced the amygdala and diminished fear through similar vmPFC connections that are thought to inhibit the amygdala during extinction.
Overall, the findings indicate that there is overlap in the neural circuitry of diminishing learned fears through emotion regulation and extinction and that vmPFC may play a general regulatory role in diminishing fear across a range of paradigms.
“Our results suggest that even though humans may have developed unique capabilities for using complex cognitive strategies to control emotion, these strategies may influence the amygdala through phylogenetically shared mechanisms of extinction. Extinction and cognitive emotion regulation may be, in part, complementary in that they rely on a common neural circuitry and, perhaps, similar neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms,” explained Dr. Phelps.
Results of the study with a small number of patients showed that the gingival substitute was “promising” and supported the need to carry out a larger patient study in the future.
The work was reported in the current issue of Cell Transplantation.

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