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By Live Dr - Wed Feb 11, 3:43 am
|TYPES OF INQUEST|
Magistrate’s /Coroner’s inquest
Medical examiners inquest (Best system of inquest)
|MAGISTRATE’S INQUEST IS DONE IN|
Police custody death
Police firing death
Police interrogation death
|DYING DEPOSITION||DYING DECLARATION|
|Recorded by magistrate||Recorded by magistrate or doctor|
|Recorded under oath||No oath necessary|
|Presence of accused and it’s lawyer necessary||Not necessary|
Types of consent
|Implied consent||When the conduct of the person indicates that he has given permission for the act to be done, without expressing it verbally or in writing.|
|Expressed consent||When the person is asked for the consent for an act, , then he expresses his consent|
|Informed consent||Consent has been given after knowing all the pros and cons of the act for which the consent is being taken.|
|Res ipsa loquitor||Evidence speaks for itself.|
|Novus actus interveniens||A doctor is not responsible for the harm caused by the interference during the course of treatment, by any other person, not related with the treatment of person.|
|Respondent superior||An employer is responsible for the negligent acts of his employee, provided it is done under the direct supervision of the employer.|
|Res judicata||When a judgement delivered by a court of law in a particular case is used as a precedent in another case of similar nature.|
|Compos mentis||Sound state of mind.|
*Calculated risk- Res ipsa loquitor should not be applied when the injury complained is of a type that may occur even though reasonable care has been taken.
It is an important defence to the doctor sued for professional negligence, who can produce expert evidence of statistics to shows that the accepted method of treatment he employed had unfavorable risks.
I can not do everything, but I can do something. I must not fail to do the something that I can do.- Helen keller
eleventh hour f.m 92
Accuracy in sexing adult skeletal
|Pelvis plus skull||98 %|
|Long bones alone||80%|
DIFFERENT METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION OF AN INDIVIDUAL
|Cheiloscopy /Figura linearum labiorum||Study of lip prints|
|Poroscopy (Locard’s method)||Identification by examination of pores on the ridges of fingers and hands|
|Dactylography (Henry-Galton system) / Dermatoglyphics||Study of finger prints|
|Gustafson’s method||Age estimation of adults over 21 years of age by studying the physiological changes in each of the dental tissues|
|Portrait parle / Bertillon’s method||Scientific indexing and filing of the physical descriptions of a person for the purpose of his future identification.|
Time table of teeth eruption
DECIDUOUS TEETH ERUPTION PERMANENT TEETH ERUPTION
|TEETH||AGE OF ERUPTION IN MONTHS|
|Lower central incisor||
|Upper central incisor||
|Upper lateral incisor||
|Lower lateral incisor||
|TEETH||AGE OF ERUPTION IN YEARS|
The arrow-poison frog is so venomous that some South American tribes dip arrows into the poison to make them more deadly.A frog 2.5 cm long makes poison for 50 arrows.
eleventh hour f.M. 93
PHYSICAL FEATURES OF FETUS AT DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL AGES
|Mouth cleft, black spot for eye||
|Limb buds appear||
|Neck, nail present||
|Eyebrows, eyelids separate||
|Left testis in scrotum||
|Bilateral testis in scrotum||
|Nails beyond tips||
|Cherry red||Hydrocyanic acid|
|Greenish blue||Hydrogen sulphide|
|POSTMORTEM CALORICITY IS SEEN IN|
*Taches Noire – brownish discolouration on the exposed sclera due to formation of cellular debris and dust settling there on. Seen in sclera within 3 hours of death if the eyes remain open
*Casper’s dictum states that a body decomposes in air twice as rapidly as in water, and eight times as rapidly as in earth.
Average heat loss is
0.5-0.7 degree Celsius per hour
*First voluntary muscle to develop rigor mortis is eyelid muscle
Last voluntary muscle to develop rigor mortis is muscles of fingers and toes
If you wish success in life, make perseverence your bosom friend, experience your wise counselor, caution your elder brother and hope your guardian genius.-Joseph Addison
eleventh HOUR F.M. 94
*Cadaveric spasm/ Instantaneous rigor
Stiffening of muscles immediately after death without being preceded by primary relaxation
Seen when the muscles of the body were in a state of strong contraction immediately before death.
*Currant jelly with supernatant yellow chicken fat appearance is seen in post-mortem clots.
|GRIEVOUS HURT (SEC 320 IPC)|
Permanent privation / loss of sight of either eye
Permanent privation / loss of hearing of either ear
Privation of any member of any joint
Destruction or permanent impairing of power of any member of joint
Permanent disfiguration of head or face
Fracture or dislocation of bone or tooth
Any hurt which endangers the life or which causes the sufferer to severe bodily pain or Makes him unable to follow his ordinary pursuits for a period of 20 days.
Colour changes in bruise
|Few hours- 3 days||Blue||–|
|4||Bluish-black to brown||Hemosiderin|
|TESTS USED FOR BLOOD STAINS|
|TESTS USED TO DETECT SEMINAL STAINS|
Acid phosphatase test
Semen specific glycoprotein
ELISA (SEMA assay for seminal vesicle specific antigen)
A human head remains conscious for about 15 to 20 seconds after it is been decapitated.
eleventh HOUR F.M. 95
|Penetrated wound||Wound terminates inside a body cavity or viscus|
|Perforated wound||Part of the weapon passes through and through the whole thickness of any part of the body|
|Punctured wound||Tip of the weapon terminates inside the body.|
DIFFERENT METHODS OF ASPHYXIA
|Throttling||Strangulation by hands|
|Garroting||Strangulation by thin ligature thrown around the neck and constricted of unaware victims.|
|Mugging||Strangulation of neck by compressing it in the knee joint or elbow joint|
|Bansdola||Strangulation by compressing the neck between two bamboo sticks|
|Palmar strangulation||Strangulation by compressing the neck with the base of the palm|
|Traumatic asphyxia||Forceful compression of the chest, which prevents respiratory movements|
|Choking||Air passage is occluded either by some foreign material introduced in the air tract or in surrounding structure.|
|Gagging||Cloth is pressed inside the oral cavity to cause asphyxia|
|Burking||Combination of smothering, palmar strangulation ad traumatic asphyxia.|
|Café coronary||Choking by a food bolus in an intoxicated person, this presents with symptoms of heart attack.|
|Lynching||Homicidal hanging done by public|
*Tardieu spots are seen in death due to asphyxia.
Sure sign of antemortem hanging is dribbling of saliva at the angle of mouth.
Six penny bruises-
Bruises found in a case of throttling on the neck, due to finger tips.
*Le facies sympathique-
In some cases of hanging, the right eye remains open with dilated pupil, whereas the left eye is closed with pupil less dilated as compared to right.
Immediate sustained laryngeal spasm
Immersion syndrome-cardiac arrest due to vagal inhibition due to diving in very cold water
Post immersion syndrome / secondary drowning – death occurs due to sequelae of drowning, like lung infection
You always pass failure on the way to success.- Mickey Rooney
eleventh HOUR F.M. 96
Shining, pale bluish red and may be minute or 3-5 cm in diameter, subplerual hemorrhage seen due to alveolar rupture in drowning.
*Arborescent burn/ filigree burn/ Lichtenberg’s flowers – burns due to lightning.
*Joule burns – burns due to electrocution.
Crocodile skin – high voltage electrocution.
10-20 ml of air can death.
SEXUAL PERVERSIONS AND UNNATURAL SEXUAL OFFENCES.
|TERMINOLOGY||EXPLANATION (PERSON GETS SEXUAL SATISFACTION BY)|
|Fetishism||Seeing/ touching organs or clothes of opposite gender|
|Transvestism (Eonism)||Wearing dresses of opposite gender|
|Peeping Tom||Secretly observing others’ sexual act|
|Troilism||Inducing one’s wife for sexual intercourse with another man and then observing them|
|Scopophilia||Seeing a nude woman in bathroom.|
|Voyeurism||More perversive than Scopophilia|
|Undinism||Seeing a woman micturiating|
|Sadism (Algolagnia)||Torturing the sexual partner|
|Bobbitt syndrome||Female amputes penis|
|Lust murder||Killing the sexual partner|
|Necrophagia||Eating the body parts of killed sexual partner|
|Masochism (passive Algolagnia)||Being tortured or abused by sexual partner|
|Exhibitionism||Exposing private parts in public|
|Frotteurism||Rubbing private parts against a female’s body.|
|Necrophilia||Having sexual act with a dead body|
|Satyriasis||Excessive sexual drive in male|
|Nymphomania||Excessive sexual drive in the female|
|Fellatio (buccal coitus)||Male organ sucked by female|
|Cunnilingus (buccal coitus)||Female organ sucked by male|
|Sodomy (Buggery)||Anal coitus|
|Pederasty||Sodomy with a child (Catamite) as a passive agent|
|Gerontophilia||Sodomy with the old person acting as a passive agent|
|Bestiality||Sexual intercourse with an animal|
Nutmeg is extremely poisonous; if injected intravenously, it can kill.
eleventh HOUR F.M. 97
*Masochism is opposite of Sadism
Scopophilia is opposite of Exhibitionism.
Buccal coitus is also known as sin of Gomorrah.
Hijrah are castrated males / hermaphrodites / intersex / transsexuals.
Jenanas are cross-dressing males who are not castrated
Flasher is a male exhibitionist
Butch / Dyke is an active lesbian
Femme is a passive lesbian.
*Abasiophilia is a psychosexual attraction to people with impaired mobility, especially those who use orthopedic appliances such as leg braces, orthopedic casts, spinal braces, or wheelchairs.
*Autoassassinophilia is the paraphilia where a person becomes sexually aroused by fantasizing their own death in the hands of another.
|CRITERIA OF RAPE IN INDIA|
|Unlawful intercourse by a man-
With his wife under age of 15 years
|With any woman under 16 years|
|With any other woman above 16 years, against her will|
*In case of rape-semen sample should be collected within 2 days
|Black Gun powder||Smokeless gun powder|
|Sulphur + potassium nitrate+ charcoal||Nitrocellulose/ nitroglycerine|
|Tandem bullets/ Piggyback bullet||Bullets ejected one after another, as the previous one was stuck in the barrel.|
|Dumdum bullet||Nose cut off.|
|Ricochet||Before striking the aim, strikes some other object, to get rebound and hit the target.|
|Frangible bullets||Designed to fragment upon impact, often to the point of disintegration.|
|ENTRY WOUND||EXIT WOUND|
|Smaller than the diameter of bullet||Larger than diameter of bullet|
|Inverted edges||Everted edges|
|Abrasion present||Abrasion absent|
|Grease collar present||Grease collar absent|
Goals are the fuel in the furnace of achievement.-Brian Tracy, ‘Eat that Frog’.
eleventh HOUR F.M. 98
|ENTRY WOUND||EXIT WOUND|
|Burning, singing, tattooing, blackening present in close shot wounds||Burning, singing, tattooing, blackening absent|
|Bleeding and tissue extrusion are less||Bleeding and tissue extrusion are more|
|Contraindication for emesis||Contraindication for gastric lavage|
|Corrosive, irritant, convulsive, volatile, comatose, Heart disease, pregnant women.||Very old, corrosive, convulsants, unconsciousness, heart disease, peptic ulcer.|
*Gastric lavage is contraindicated in poisoning with mineral acids like sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid
It can be done in cases of organic acids like aspirin, oxalic acid, carbolic acid, picric acid, acetic acid, tartaric ac id, citric acid
|HEMODIALYSIS IS USED IN CASES OF POISONING BY FOLLOWING||HEMODIALYSIS IS NOT USEFUL IN|
Characteristic smells in poisoning
|Garlic odour||Arsenic poisoning|
|Fruity odour||Ethyl alcohol|
|Kerosene odour||Kerosene, OPC|
|Rotten eggs||Hydrogen sulphide|
|Activated charcoal- 2 parts
Magnesium oxide- 1 part
Tannic acid- 1 part
Snakes are immune to their own poison.
eleventh HOUR F.M. 99
Urine Colour in poisoning
*Smoky stool syndrome- found in phosphorus poisoning, the stools show luminescent fumes
*In copper sulphate poisoning, vomitus is bluish green.
ANTIDOTES OF SOME POSISONS
|Acids||Weak noncarbonated alkalies|
|Alkalies||Weak vegetable acids- citric acid, acetic acid.|
|Silver nitrate||Sodium chloride|
|Mercuric chloride||Egg albumin|
|Arsenic poisoning||Freshly prepared ferric oxide|
|Oxalic acid||Calcium gluconate|
|Phenol/carbolic acid||20% alcohol for gastric lavage|
|Aspirin||Stomach wash with magnesium oxide|
|Yellow phosphorus||Stomach wash with 0.1 % solution of copper sulphate|
|Lead||Stomach wash with magnesium or sodium sulphate, calcium disodium edta iv|
|Mercury||Egg albumin, bal or penicillamine iv.|
|Ideal homicidal poison||Aconite|
|Ideal suicidal poison||Opium|
|Ideal judicial poison (death sentence)||Cyanide (gas chamber)|
|Ideal date-rape drug||Ketamine|
|LILY’S KIT- ANTIDOTE FOR HCN POISONING|
No great man ever complains of want of opportunities.- Ralph Waldo Emerson
eleventh HOUR F.M. 100
|Abrus precatorius/ Rati||Abrin||Used by jewelers in olden days to measure gold and silver.
Local effect similar to viper snake bite.
|Ricinus communis / castor||Ricin.||Castor oil (Erandel oil) purgative|
|Croton tiglium/ purging croton/ Jamaalgota||Crotin and Crotonoside||Purgative|
|Semicarpus anacardium/ marking nut/||Semicarpol and Bhilawanol||Used in laundries for marking on clothes.|
|Calotrpois/ madar||Calotropin, Calotoxin, Gigantin, Uscharin.||–|
|Capsicum annum||Capsicin, Capsaicin.||–|
|Aconite/ Mitha vish||Aconitine||Pupils show hippus reaction (alternate constriction and dilatation)|
*Chronic arsenic poisoning
Mee’s line (White transverse bands on nail plate)
Acute dhatura poisoning
|Signs and symptoms|
|Flushed skin (red as beet)
Hyperthermia(hot as hare)
Inhibition of secretions (dry as bone)
Dilation of pupils with loss of accumulation (blind as bat)
Restlessness, delirium (mad as wet hen)
Cold turkey-describes the withdrawal symptoms in chronic intoxication by opiates.
Cold clammy skin (hyperhydrosis)
Cutis anserine (gooseflesh)
Every person has a unique tongue print.
eleventh HOUR F.M. 101
|Cobra||Neurotoxic (convulsions and paralysis)|
*Neostigmine is used to treat cobra venom
COLLOQUIAL / STREET NAMES OF SOME SUBSTANCES OF ABUSE
|Mitha vish ( sweet poison)||Aconite|
|Siddhi / Bhang||Leaves and stems of cannabis sativa ( 2% cannabinol)|
|Majun||Sweetmeat preparation of Bhang|
|Ganja||flowering tops of female plants of c. sativa (5-10% cannabinol)|
|Reefer||cigarette preparation of Ganja|
|Charas||resinous extract from leaves and flowers of c. sativa (20-50% cannabinol)|
|Madak / Chandu||Opium vapours|
|Bhujri||Fried ripe capsule of poppy plant|
|Angel dust , Elephant||Phencyclidine|
|XTC / Ecstasy / Football||Amphetamine|
|Heavenly blue||Morning glory seeds|
|Speed ball||Mixture of heroine and cocaine|
|Sukhi sharaab/ dry liquor||Methaqualone|
Never mistake knowledge for wisdom. One helps you make a living; the other helps you make a life.-Sandra Carey
eleventh HOUR F.M. 102
|Saturated solution of salt||All poisonings, including( carbolic acid) except acids|
|Rectified spirit||Acid poisoning (except carbolic acid)|
|10% formalin||Preservation for histopathological examination|
|Potassium oxalate + sodium fluoride||Blood preservation in alcohol poisoning case|
|Sodium citrate + sodium fluoride||Blood preservation in oxalic acid , ethylene glycol poisoning case|
|Potassium oxalate + sodium nitrite||Blood preservation in fluoride poisoning case|
|Layer of liquid paraffin over blood column||Blood preservation in carbon monoxide poisoning case|
*Body packers / mules/ swallowers/ stuffers
Drug smugglers who swallow cocaine or heroin filled packets and retrieve them at a later date from their stools, or orally
Rupture of packet can lead to severe toxicity and death
*Magnan’s syndrome / formication/ cocainomania / cocaine bugs-
Hallucination of insects crawling on skin, seen in cocaine addicts
*Alcohol and nicotine are called gateway drugs, i.e. they lead to the misuse of other drugs.
Intoxicating effectes of alcohol are greater when the blood alcohol level is rising than when it is falling.
Between the time of death and the onset of rigor mortis in a human body, the contraction of the muscles can cause the body to turn over on its side.
eleventh HOUR F.M. 103
|Falanga/ Falaka/ Bastinado||Hitting soles of feet|
|El telefone||Slapping with the palms on both ears, leading to rupture of tympanic membrane|
|El quirafano||Hitting on the abdomen, while lying on table with upper half of body unsupported|
|La bandera||Suspending a person by wrists|
|Murcielago||Suspending by ankles|
|Parrots perch/ Jack/ Pau de arara/ Bombay cuff||Suspending from a pole placed under the knees, with the wrists bound to the ankles.|
|Wet submarine||With eyes strapped, hood on head and limbs tied, person is dipped in a tank of oil containing ammonia, urine, excreta, sea water till the person can’t hold his breath.|
|Dry submarine||Tying of plastic bag on the head|
|El planton||Prolonged standing|
|Black slave||Insertion of hot metal rod into the anus|
|Water boarding||Detainee is strapped down, dunked under water and made to believe that he might be drowned|
|Palestinian hanging/ crucifixion.||Binding the prisoner’s hands behind his or her back. As fatigue sets in the person falls forward, putting full body weight on the shoulders, this impairs breathing, leading to death.|
|Sweatboxes||Prisoner is locked in a small, hot room, without ventilation.|
|Aeroplane treatment||The accused is hung upside down, leading to congestion of head, this is then followed by beating of soles|
|Roller method||Prisoner is forcibly laid on his back and then a round poleis rolled over his legs and body, sometimes with torturers standing on either end of it and rolling it up and down|
|Cog needle||A thin rod is inserted through the umbilicus or up the anus|
|Bellary||A stick smeared with red or green chilly paste is thrust into the anus|
Courage and perseverence have a magical talisman, before which difficulties disappear and obstacles vanish into air.-John Quincy Adam.
eleventh HOUR F.M. 104