11/19/2018

HEMATOLOGY & ONCOLOGY high yield for mci screening test,indian medical entrance exam

By Live Dr - Tue Jan 27, 9:40 pm


HEMATOLOGY & ONCOLOGY

 

 

i. Microcytic Anemia MCV < 80; IRON DEFICIENCY = decr. ferritin; CHRONIC DISEASE decr. Fe, decr. Transferrin, incr. Ferritin; LEAD POISONING; THALASSEMIA

 

ii. Normocytic Anemia MCV 80 – 100; Hemolysis, Chronic disease, Bone marrow suppression (drugs, leukemia) (aplastic)

 

iii. Macrocytic Anemia MCV > 100; FOLATE DEF. = most common cause, decr. folate normal B12;

iv. B12 DEFICIENCY: B12 absorbed when linked with IF from parietal cells, neuro sx,

 

v. Alpha Thalassemia Acanthocytes (rounded projections from cells); Poikilocytosis (variable size); target cells, Very low MCV but mild anemia, Hemoglobin H = a chain missing; Asians, Dx by Hb electrophoresis,

 

vi. Beta Thalassemia Peripheral Smear = basophillic stippling, nucleated RBC, anisocytosis (chgs in size) Mediterranean & African heritage; Minor = heterozygous, Major = homozygous

 

vii. Sickle Cell Anemia sickled cells, decr. Hct & incr. reticulocyte count, electrophoresis HbS + HbA neg. Salmonella osteomyelitis, S. pneumonia sepsis.

 

viii. Hemophilia X linked factor VIII (A) or IX (B) deficiency; Prolonged PTT, Joint & soft tissue bleeding; Tx cryoprecipitate & FFP

 

ix. Von Willebrand’s Disease autosomal dominant deficiency of VIII & vWF, epistaxis, menorrhagia, bruising, increased PTT & bleeding time

 

x. Eosinophilia Allergic Drug Reaction; NAACP = neoplasm, asthma/allergies, Addison’s disease, connective tissue disorders, parasites

 

xi. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Pupura adults > kids, women > men; platelets consumed in clotting reactions, Fluctuating neurologic defects, decr. platelets, decr. HCT, incr. retic count, incr. incr. incr. LDH, acute onset not autoimmune

 

xii. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Pupura kids > adults, autoimmune destruction of platelets, Purpurea & Petechia , Platelets<10000, Epistaxis, menorrhagia

 

xiii. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Usually caused by E. coli toxin, RBC fragments on smear, RBC destruction => acute renal failure, 2o thrombocytopenia, abd pain & diarrhea after a flu or URI prodrome; platelets derc, LDH greatly increased

 

xiv. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Painless cervical lymphadenopathy, Reed Sternberg cells (multinucleated reticular cells), 80% survival

 

xv. Burkitt’s Lymphoma B cell lymphoma, Associated with Epstein-Barr virus, children & young adults

 

xvi. Hereditary Spherocytosis dominant deficit in RBC membrane proteins, damaged cells get trapped in spleen. Spherical RBC & reticulocytosis on smear. Coombs neg.

 

xvii. G-6-PDase Deficiency X linked hemoglobin accumulates in RBC (Heinz bodies) hemolysis occurs after ingestion of oxidant

 

xviii. Agranulocytosis neutrophils = decr production or incr destruction

 

xix. DIC wide spread activation of coagulation cascade. decr. platelets, fragmented RBC, incr. PT & PTT ; decr. fibrinogen, Pregnancy, malignancy, infections, massive trauma

 

xx. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia 80% childhood leukemia, peak age 3 – 7; usually B cell origin; incr. lymphoblasts, few other cells on bone marrow biopsy

 

xxi. Acute Myelocytic Leukemia affects myeloid cells (N,B,E,erythrocytes, megakarocytes) adults > kids; DIC possible, gram neg and fungal infections, Auer Rods (red staining intracellular inclusions.

 

xxii. Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia Philadelphia Chromosome (acquired translocation chromosome 9 & 22), tumor cells are more mature, Dx in middle aged, WBC > 150000; incr. uric acid, incr. B12 (B12 carrier protein produced by WBC); leukocyte alkaline phos decr or absent, RBC normal

xxiii. Blast crisis transforms it to acute leukemia

 

xxiv. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Disorder of mature B cells (rarely T); B cells don’t differentiate into plasma cells, men > women; usually > 50; No Blast Crisis

 

xxv. Hairy Cell Leukemia B cell transformed into tumor cell with fine hair like projections; pancytopenia, red pulp of spleen infiltrated

 

xxvi. Multiple Myeloma Plasma cell proliferation and monoclonal IG; men = women; peak 50 – 60, 1 – 3 year survival; xrays show osteolytic bone lesions, Increased urine protein (Bence Jones)

 

xxvii. Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia single B cell line = monoclonal IM over production; decr. RBC with normal WBC & platelets; Rouleau Formation = RBC pile up forming cylinders

 

xxviii. Mycosis Fungoides Clonal proliferation of CD4 T cells; infiltrates dermis & epidermis, thickened & nodular skin lesions

 

xxix. Polycythemia Vera overproduction of all 3 cell lines; RBC > 1,000,000, Hct > 60%; men & women peak age 60; Bone biopsy- hypercellular with absent Fe stores; R/O spurious polycythemia = incr. RBC due to dehydration; R/O 2o polycythemia = RBC mass incr. due to decr. oxygenation.

 

xxx. Eaton Lambert 90% assoc w/ small cell CA, decr. presynaptic Ca release = proximal muscle weakness; hyporeflexia, dysautonomia, function incr. w/ stimulation; weakest in AM (opposite MG) Tx Tubocurare

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