09/24/2017

ONCOLOGY mci screening test and indian medical pg examz high yield important topics study tips

By Live Dr - Wed Feb 11, 3:26 am

ONCOLOGY

highly radiosensitive tumors highly radioresistant
Seminoma

Ewing’s tumor

Lymphoma

Wilm’s tumor

Multiple myeloma

Dysgerminoma

Hepatoma

Melanoma

Osteosarcoma

Pancreatic cancer

*Most radiocurable tumor is Hodgkin’s disease

biological fractionation of radiotherapy is explained by
Repair of sublethal damage

Repopulation between fractions

Redistribution of cells in the cell cycle

Reoxygenation of tumor

Inherent Radiosensitivity

Recruitment of cells into the proliferating fraction

*Most radiosensitive portion of cell cycle

G2 – M phase

*Penetrating power

Gamma > X-ray> Beta > Alpha (Helium)

Ionizing power and damaging power

Alpha (Helium) > Beta > X-ray > Gamma

*Thimble chamber-Used for detection and measurement of radiation

HALF LIVES

Tc-99m 6 hrs
I 131 8 days
I 125 60 days
Co-60 5.2 yrs
Ra 226 1699 years
CANCER TRANSLOCATION
CML t (9,22)
Burkitt’s lymphoma t (8, 14)
Ewing’s tumour t (11,22)
Acute promyelocytic leukemia t (15,17)

QUOTE CORNER

God heals, and the doctor takes the fees.- Benjamin Franklin

ELEVENTH HOUR ONCOLOGY                                                                                                             228

tumour marker associated tumours
HCG Trophoblastic tumours, nonseminomatous testicular tumours
Calcitonin Medullary carcinoma of thyroid
Alpha fetoprotein Liver cell cancer, nonseminomatous germ cell tumours of testis
Carcinoembryonic antigen Carcinoma colon, pancreas, lung, stomach, breast
Acid phosphates

PSA

Prostate cancer
Neuron specific Enolase Small cell lung cancer, Neuroblastoma
Immunoglobulins Multiple myeloma
CA 125 Ovarian cancer
Ca 19-9 Colon cancer, pancreatic cancer
Ca 15-3 Breast cancer
5-hydroxy indole acetic acid Carcinoid tumors
Serum alkaline phosphatase Osteosarcoma
Homovanillic acid, VMA Neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma
Ca 50 / Ca 242 Colorectal, pancreatic, gastric.
Neuron specific Enolase Neuroendocrine  tumours

Small cell lung carcinomas

Medullary thyroid carcinomas

*Characteristic of AML- Auer rods

Philadelphia chromosome – CML

*Commonest malignancy in women in developing countries is cervical cancer

Commonest malignancy in women in developed countries is breast cancer

Commonest cancer in elderly is prostrate cancer.

Burkitt’s lymphoma -most rapidly progressive tumour.

Most common inherited malignancy is retinoblastoma

Tumor suppressor genes

Rb Retinoblastoma and osteogenic sarcoma
P53 Many tumors and Li Fraumeni syndrome
Wt 1 Wilm’s tumor and aniridia
Nf1 Neurofibromatosis

*P53 is the guardian of genome

P53 mutation is the most common genetic alteration seen in human cancer

It is the causative in Li-Fraumeni familial cancer syndrome

TRIVIAL TRUTH

The rosy periwinkle plant, found in Madagascar, is used to cure leukemia

ELEVENTH HOUR ONCOLOGY                                                                                                         229

chemical associated cancer
Benzene Leukemias
Vinyl chloride Angiosarcoma of liver
Beta-naphthylamine Urinary bladder carcinoma
Azo dyes Hepatoma
Aflatoxin Hepatoma
TUMORS ASSOCIATED WITH ABSOLUTE ERYTHROCYTOSIS
Hypernephroma (renal cell carcinoma)

Cerebellar hemangioblastoma

Hepatoma

Adrenal adenoma

Pheochromocytoma

Meningioma

Uterine fibromyoma

Ann Arbor staging for Hodgkin’s disease

Stage I Involvement of single lymph ode region
Stage II Involvement of 2 or more lymph node regions on same side of diaphragm
Stage III Involvement of lymph node regions on both sides of diaphragm
Stage IV Disseminated involvement of one or more extra lymphatic organs with or without.

*Trousseau’s sign of malignancy / Trousseau’s syndrome

Some malignancies, especially adenocarcinomas of the pancreas and lung, are associated with hypercoagulability. In patients with malignancy-associated hypercoagulable states, the blood may spontaneously form clots in the portal vessels, the deep veins of the extremities, or the superficial veins anywhere on the body. When recurrent clots form in different superficial veins around the body, this is described as migratory thrombophlebitis.

Armand Trousseau first described this finding in himself; he was subsequently found to have pancreatic cancer.

*Mesna- Sodium 2-mercapto ethane sulphate

Protective agent in cancer chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide) to prevent hemorrhagic cystitis

Acrolein is thought to be responsible for its action

*Kaposi’s sarcoma is the most common neoplasm in patients with AIDS

QUOTE CORNER

An invincible determination can accomplish almost anything and in this lies the great distinction between great men and little men. – Dr. Thomas Fuller

ELEVENTH HOUR ONCOLOGY                                                                                                           230

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