PUBLIC HEALTH zipped and extracted important high yield topics for medical students

By Live Dr - Tue Jan 27, 9:51 pm


1.      Levels of Prevention: 1o = actions to decr. incidence of health problems (prenatal care, immunizations)

2.      2o = interventions at early stage of disease to limit development (DM screen, PAP)

3.      3o = interventions to treat problem and prevent further morbidity & mortality

4.      Special Tests Complement & Complement disorders C3, C4, CH50

5.      Rheumatiod – ANA, RF

6.      Lupus – DNA, Anti Smith Antibody

7.      Scleroderma – Scl-70, Anti Centromere

8.      Sjogrens -SSA Anti Ro, Anti LA

9.      Prostate = PSA, Pancreatic = CA 19-9,Ovarian=CA125; Breast = CA15-3 & CA27-29

10.  Testiclar = BHCG, AFP, Thyroid = Calcitonin

11.  10 Biliary Cirrhosis = Anti mitochondrial antibody

12.  Wilson’s Disease = Ceroluplasmin Antibody

13.  Liver = Alpha 1 antitrypsin

14.  Thyroid – Antimicrosomal antibody, Thyroglobin antibody

15.  Incidence # new cases / total population

16.  Prevalence # cases at a given time / total pop at that time

17.  Disease Frequency # people w/ disease / population at risk

18.  Case Fatality # who die in a given period/ # people w/ disease

19.  Relative Risk Only from cohort study; a/a+b divided by c/c+d; >1 positive assoc, < 1 negative association, =1 no association ==> disease if exposed /disease if not exposed

20.  Odds Ratio Only from case control; odds of getting if exposed / odds of getting if not exposed (ad/bc)

21.  Mortality Rate # people that die w/ in current population

22.  Std Mortality Rate Adjusted according to age distribution

23.  Attributable Risk exposed rate – unexposed rate

24.  Sensitivity a/a+c; accurate diagnose ; incr. False +

25.  Specificity d/b+d; Prob of neg test in those truly neg; incr. false neg

26.  OMM

27.  Fryettes Laws 1. Side bending then rotation in neutral position

1.      Flexion or extension with rotation then side bending

2.      Motion free in one direction is restricted in the other

28.  Ribs 1-5 pump handle, 6-10 bucket handle, 11-12 caliper; Elevated = expiration restricted Treat lower ribs 1st; Depressed = inhalation restriction, treat upper ribs 1st

29.  Flexion Test Standing = ilia sacral; Seated = sacroiliac; false neg = tight hamstrings on standing flexion; False positive = tight quads on standing flexion

30.  Sympathetic Innervations Head & Neck = T1-4; Lung T2-5 bilat; Heart T2-5 Left, Stomach T5-9 Left; Duodenum T10 rt; Gall Bladder T9 rt; Liver T5-9 Rt, Pancreas T6-9 bilat, Kidneys, Ovaries, Testes T10-L1 of respective side; Adrenals T10-11, Appendix T11-12 Rt, Bladder L3-4, Uterus L4-5, Rectum & Anus L4-5

31.  Parasympathetic Innervations Eyes=CN III; Nasal sinuses, Eustachian Tube=CN VII; Soft Palate, Salivary Glands=CN IX; Thyroid thru Transverse Colon=CN X (Vagus); Right Colon & Pelvis= Pelvic Splanchnic Nerves S2-4

32.  Somatic Dysfunction An altered or impaired function of related components of the somatic system

33.  Qualities: Texture chg, asymmetry, decr. ROM, tenderness

34.  Treatment Types Direct = engages restricted barrier & pushes thru it, Force takes it from where it is to where it will not go

35.  Indirect = Move away from the barrier, Leaves the structure in the position it was

36.  Direct Technique Used For: Subacute or chronic, no assoc osseous pathology post closure of epiphyseal plate, Short restrictors

37.  Indirect Technique Used For Acute, A lot of pain, a lot of restriction, non closure of epiphysis

38.  HVLA Contraindications

39.  Direct, Passive Absolute = Weak bony structure, spinal cord, nerve compressions, Danger of vascular damage;

40.  Relative: lax ligament, acute inflammation, pregnancy, Calcification of aorta, Recent MI, spondylosis, Ankylosin Spondylitis, Osteoporosis, Chronic Steroid use, Acute disk disease, Extreme scoliosis, Cauda Equina Syndrome, Adv. Degenerative disease, Severe DM, Hx or current malignancy, Agenesis Odontoid process, Vertigo

41.  Counter Strain

42.  Passive Indirect Put joint into position of greatest comfort; Agonist-Antagonist pair; Strain due to rapid stretching followed by protective immediate shortening of agonist along with rapid shortening then lengthening of antagonist

43.  Most comfort of pt (70%) Hold for 90 sec (120 secs for ribs) Reactions to Tx: generalized soreness, treat no more than 6 TP at a time, 3 days between Tx;

44.  Muscle Energy

45.  (Active then passive, direct) Type I = Joint mobilization using direct muscle force

46.  Type II = Muscle lengthening using postisometric relaxation, “Resetting the Gamma Gap or Synaptic Fatigue

47.  Type III = Muscle lengthening using Reciprocal Inhibition

48.  Type IV = Muscle relaxation using Crossed Extensor Reflex – Used w/ sever injury (flexor muscle on one extremity is contracted the flexor on opposite extremity relaxes & extensor contracts)

49.  Natural Body Rhythms Cardiac/Vascular, Ventilatory, Visceral, Cranial Rhythmic Impulse (CRI), Slow Undulating (Breath of life)

50.  Articular Mobility of Cranial Bones Newborn: Base is cartilage for stability, vault is membrane for accommodation Sphenoid motion – influences facial & frontal bones; Occipital Motion – influences temporals (mandible & hyoid) & parietals

51.  Motion of Sacrum between the Ilium Superior transverse axis, Located at S2, Only area of anterior convergence & posterior divergence of the SI joint

52.  Coordination of motion Inhalation = midline flex, paired ext rotate, sacral base post, SBS rises

53.  Exhalation = midline extension, paired int. rotation, sacral base anterior SBS falls

54.  Sacrum & Temporal follow movement of occiput; Facial bones follow motion of sphenoid

55.  Strain Patterns Torsion, Side bending rotation, Vertical Strain, Lateral Strain, Compression

56.  Naming Convention Vert unit, AP, side bending, rotation

57.  Type of Motion C0-C1 (OA) Type I; C1-C2 Rotation; C2-C7 Type II; C7-L5 Type I & II


59.  pH acedemia < 7.35-7.45 < alkalemia

60.  pCO2 Resp alkalosis < 35 – 45 < Resp acidosis

61.  HCO3 Metabolic Acidosis < 22-26 < Metabolic alkalosis

62.  Anion Gap = (NA) – [(Cl) + (HCO3)]

63.  Primary disorder pCO2 or HCO3 altered same way as pH

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