09/22/2017

Some mnemonics for mci screening test, FMGE exam

By Live Dr - Thu Oct 30, 12:22 pm

Some mnemonics for mci exam…that might help…..

1.Aortic stenosis characteristics SAD:
Syncope
Angina
Dyspnoea

2.MI: basic management BOOMAR:
Bed rest
Oxygen
Opiate
Monitor
Anticoagulate
Reduce clot size

3.ECG: left vs. right bundle block “WiLLiaM MaRRoW”:
W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.
M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.
• Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide.

CVS II

4.Pericarditis: causes CARDIAC RIND:
Collagen vascular disease
Aortic aneurysm
Radiation
Drugs (such as hydralazine)
Infections
Acute renal failure
Cardiac infarction
Rheumatic fever
Injury
Neoplasms
Dressler’s syndrome

5.Murmurs: systolic types SAPS:
Systolic
Aortic
Pulmonic
Stenosis
• Systolic murmurs include aortic and pulmonary stenosis.
• Similarly, it’s common sense that if it is aortic and pulmonary stenosis it could also be mitral and tricusp regurgitation.

6.MI: signs and symptoms PULSE:
Persistent chest pains
Upset stomach
Lightheadedness
Shortness of breath
Excessive sweating

7.Heart compensatory mechanisms that ‘save’ organ blood flow during shock “Heart SAVER”:
Symphatoadrenal system
Atrial natriuretic factor
Vasopressin
Endogenous digitalis-like factor
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
• In all 5, system is activated/factor is released

8.Murmurs: right vs. left loudness “RILE”:
Right sided heart murmurs are louder on Inspiration.
Left sided heart murmurs are loudest on Expiration.
• If get confused about which is which, remember LIRE=liar which will be inherently false.

9.ST elevation causes in ECG, ELEVATION:
Electrolytes
LBBB
Early repolarization
Ventricular hypertrophy
Aneurysm
Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis)
Injury (AMI, contusion)
Osborne waves (hypothermia)
Non-occlusive vasospasm

10.Beck’s triad (cardiac tamponade) 3 D’s:
Distant heart sounds
Distended jugular veins
Decreased arterial pressure

11MI: therapeutic treatment ROAMBAL:
Reassure
Oxygen
Aspirin
Morphine (diamorphine)
Beta blocker
Arthroplasty
Lignocaine

12.CHF: causes of exacerbation FAILURE:
Forgot medication
Arrhythmia/ Anaemia
Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection
Lifestyle: taken too much salt
Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism
Renal failure
Embolism: pulmonary

13.Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic PASS: Pulmonic & Aortic Stenosis=Systolic.
PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic Insufficiency=Diastolic.

14.Murmurs: systolic vs. diastolic Systolic murmurs: MR AS: “MR. ASner”.
Diastolic murmurs: MS AR: “MS. ARden”.
• The famous people with those surnames are Mr. Ed Asner and Ms. Jane Arden.

15.Mitral stenosis (MS) vs. regurgitation (MR): epidemiology MS is a female title (Ms.) and it is female predominant
MR is a male title (Mr.) and it is male predominant.

16.Pericarditis: EKG “PericarditiS”:
PR depression in precordial leads.
ST elevation.

17.Jugular venous pressure (JVP) elevation: causes HOLT: Grab Harold Holt around the neck and throw him in the ocean:
Heart failure
Obstruction of venea cava
Lymphatic enlargement – supraclavicular
Intra-Thoracic pressure increase

18.Depressed ST-segment: causes DEPRESSED ST:
Drooping valve (MVP)
Enlargement of LV with strain
Potassium loss (hypokalemia)
Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI)
Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)
Subendocardial ischemia
Subendocardial infarct
Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Shock
Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine

19.Murmurs: innocent murmur features 8 S’s:
Soft
Systolic
Short
Sounds (S1 & S2) normal
Symptomless
Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)
Standing/ Sitting (vary with position)
Sternal depression

20.Murmur attributes “IL PQRST” (person has ill PQRST heart waves):
Intensity
Location
Pitch
Quality
Radiation
Shape
Timing

21.Murmurs: locations and descriptions “MRS A$$”:
MRS: Mitral Regurgitation–Systolic
A$$: Aortic Stenosis–Systolic
• The other two murmurs, Mitral stenosis and Aortic regurgitation, are obviously diastolic.

22.Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers “Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium”
• Cardioselective betablockers are:
Betaxolol
Acebutelol
Esmolol
Atenolol
Metoprolol

23.Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable HILT:
Heaving
Impalpable
Laterally displaced
Thrusting/ Tapping
• If it is impalpable, causes are COPD:
COPD
Obesity
Pleural, Pericardial effusion
Dextrocardia

24.MI: treatment of acute MI COAG:
Cyclomorph
Oxygen
Aspirin
Glycerol trinitrate

25.Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
Stenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease

26.Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria SICVD:
Symmetry of leg musculature
Integrity of skin
Color of toenails
Varicose veins
Distribution of hair

27.Heart murmurs “hARD ASS MRS. MSD”:
hARD: Aortic Regurg = Diastolic
ASS: Aortic Stenosis = Systolic
MRS: Mitral Regurg = Systolic
MSD: Mitral Stenosis = Diastolic

28.Mitral regurgitation When you hear holosystolic murmurs, think “MR-THEM ARE holosystolic murmurs”.

29.Sino-atrial node: innervation Sympathetic acts on Sodium channels (SS).
Parasympathetic acts on Potassium channels (PS).

30.Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment ABCDE:
Adenosine
Beta-blocker
Calcium channel antagonist
Digoxin
Excitation (vagal stimulation)

31.Ventricular tachycardia: treatment LAMB:
Lidocaine
Amiodarone
Mexiltene/ Magnesium
Beta-blocker

32.Pulseless electrical activity: causes PATCH MED:
Pulmonary embolus
Acidosis
Tension pneumothorax
Cardiac tamponade
Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia
Myocardial infarction
Electrolyte derangements
Drugs

33.Sinus bradycardia: aetiology “SINUS BRADICARDIA” (sinus bradycardia):
Sleep
Infections (myocarditis)
Neap thyroid (hypothyroid)
Unconsciousness (vasovagal syncope)
Subnormal temperatures (hypothermia)
Biliary obstruction
Raised CO2 (hypercapnia)
Acidosis
Deficient blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
Imbalance of electrolytes
Cushing’s reflex (raised ICP)
Aging
Rx (drugs, such as high-dose atropine)
Deep Anaesthesia
Ischemic heart disease
Athletes
35.Rheumatic fever: Jones criteria • Major criteria: CANCER:
Carditis
Arthritis
Nodules
Chorea
Erythema
Rheumatic anamnesis
• Minor criteria: CAFE PAL:
CRP increased
Arthralgia
Fever
Elevated ESR
Prolonged PR interval
Anamnesis of rheumatism
Leucocytosis

36.JVP: wave form ASK ME:
Atrial contraction
Systole (ventricular contraction)
Klosure (closure) of tricusps, so atrial filling
Maximal atrial filling
Emptying of atrium

37.Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST:
Depressed ventricular function
Unstable angina
Stenosis of the left main stem
Triple vessel disease

38. Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications RAMP:
Recent MI
Aortic stenosis
MI in the last 7 days
Pulmonary hypertension

39.ECG: T wave inversion causes INVERT:
Ischemia
Normality [esp. young, black]
Ventricular hypertrophy
Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques]
RBBB, LBBB
Treatments [digoxin]

40.Rheumatic fever: Jones major criteria JONES:
Joints (migrating polyarthritis)
Obvious, the heart (carditis, pancarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis or valvulits)
Nodes (subcutaneous nodules)
Erythema marginatum
Sydenham’s chorea

41.Myocardial infarctions: treatment INFARCTIONS:
IV access
Narcotic analgesics (eg morphine, pethidine)
Facilities for defibrillation (DF)
Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin)
Rest
Converting enzyme inhibitor
Thrombolysis
IV beta blocker
Oxygen 60%
Nitrates
Stool Softeners

42.Atrial fibrillation: causes PIRATES:
Pulmonary: PE, COPD
Iatrogenic
Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation
Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD
Thyroid: hyperthyroid
Endocarditis
Sick sinus syndrome

43.Atrial fibrillation: management ABCD:
Anti-coagulate
Beta-block to control rate
Cardiovert
Digoxin

44.Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes “Do Block AV”:
Digoxin
B-blockers
Adenosine
Verapamil

45.Murmurs: systolic MR PV TRAPS:
Mitral
Regurgitation and
Prolaspe
VSD
Tricupsid
Regurgitation
Aortic and
Pulmonary
Stenosis

46.Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat DOPES:
Dextrocardia
Obesity
Pericarditis or pericardial tamponade
Emphysema
Sinus inversus/ Student incompetence

BIOCHEM I

Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms 5 P’s:
Pain in abdomen
Polyneuropathy
Psychologial abnormalities
Pink urine
Precipitated by drugs (eg barbiturates, oral contraceptives, sulpha drugs)

BUN:creatinine elevation: causes ABCD:
Azotremia (pre-renal)
Bleeding (GI)
Catabolic status
Diet (high protein parenteral nutrition)

G6PD: oxidant drugs inducing hemolytic anemia AAA: Antibiotic (eg: sufamethoxazole)
Antimalarial (eg: primaquine)
Antipyretics (eg: acetanilid, but not aspirin or acetaminophen)

Vitamin B3 (niacin, nicotinic acid) deficiency: pellagra
The 3 D’s of pellagra: Dermatitis Diarrhea Dementia
• Note vitamin B3 is the 3 D’s.

Tangier’s disease: hallmark
“Tangierene tonsils”:
Hallmark is large orange tonsils.
• Important clinical note: there is no increased risk of atherosclerosis, just like eating tangerenes.

Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity
K+ and in each consist of 2 characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in. Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out

Glycogen storage: Anderson’s (IV) vs. Cori’s (III) enzyme defect
ABCD:
Anderson’s=Branching enzyme.
Cori’s=Debranching enzyme.
• Otherwise, can’t really distinguish clinically.

Nitric oxide: amino acid precursor
When the dentist works on your teeth, you say, “AAArg! (Arginine)” before he administers Nitric Oxide (NO) to take the pain away.
• Other players necessary for NO synthesis: NO synthase, Ca++, NADPH.

Pompe’s disease: type “Police = Po + lys”:
Pompe’s disease is a lysosomal storage disease (alpha 1,4 glucosidase).

Metabolic acidosis (normal anion-gap): causes
• With hyperkalemia: RAISE K+:
RTA type 4
Aldosterone or mineralocorticord deficiency
Iatrogenic: NH4Cl, HCl
“Stenosis”: obstructive uropathy
Early uremia
• With hypokalemia: ReDUCE K+:
Renal TA type 1 and 2
Diarrhoea
Urine diversion into gut
Carbonate anhydrase inhibitor
Ex-hyperventilation

Galactosaemia: enzyme deficiency
GALIPUT: Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase.
• There is an assay called the Galiput test for this.

Citric acid cycle compounds
“Our City Is Kept Safe And Sound From Malice”:
Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate alpha-Ketoglutarate Succinyl-CoA Succinate Fumarate Malate

Folate deficiency: causes A FOLIC DROP:
Alcoholism
Folic acid antagonists
Oral contraceptives
Low dietary intake
Infection with Giardia
Celiac sprue
Dilatin
Relative folate deficiency
Old
Pregnant

Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) properties
“mt DNA”.
mt stands for: Maternal Transfer Mutates Tremendously (high mutation rate)

Vitamins: which are fat soluble
“The FAT cat is in the ADEK (attic)”:
Fat soluble vitamins are A,D,E,K.

Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs. non-competitive inhibition
With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases; no change in Vmax. With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km; Vmax decreases.

Glycogen storage: names of types I through VI
“Viagra Pills Cause A Major Hardon”:
Von Gierke’s
Pompe’s
Cori’s
Anderson’s
McArdle’s
Her’s

Sickle cell disease pathophysiology
SICKle cell disease is due to a Substitution of the SICKsth amino acid of the B chain.

Glucagon function
“Mr. Gluca has Gone to the cAMP to bring out some Glucose”:
• Glucagon elevates glucose by cAMP mechanism.

Van den Bergh reaction (Jaundice test)
“Indirect reacting bilirubin = Unconjugated bilirubin”:
Both start with vowels, so they go together:
Indirect & Unconjugated.

Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right
“CADET, face right!”:
CO2
Acid
2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG)
Exercise
Temperature

BIOCHEM II

G proteins for respective receptors
“QISS & QIQ” (Kiss and Kick):
• G-proteins and their respective receptors (alphabetical order):
Q: alpha 1 I: alpha 2 S: beta 1 S: beta 2 &
Q: M1 I: M2 Q: M3

Adrenaline mechanism
“ABC of Adrenaline”:
Adrenaline–> activates
Beta receptors–> increases
Cyclic AMP

Citric acid cycle compounds
“Can I Keep Selling Sex For Money, Officer?”:
Citrate Isocitrate alpha Ketogluterate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumerate Malate Oxaloacetate

Carbon monoxide: electron transport chain target
“CO blocks CO”:
Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks Cytochrome Oxidase (CO)

Metabolism sites
“Use both arms to HUG”:
Heme synthesis Urea cycle Gluconeogenesis • These reactions occur in both cytoplasm and mitochondria.

Na/K pump: concentrations of Na vs. K on inside/outside of cell, pump action, number of molecules moved
HIKIN’: There is a HIgh K concentration INside the cell. From this can deduce that the Na/K pump pumps K into cell and Na out of cell. Alternatively: When I was learning this pump (circa 1992), a band that was “in” was Kris Kross, and a band that was “out” was “Sha Na Na Na”: So pump moves K K (2 K) in and Na Na Na (3 Na) out. • Sadly, as infectious as their debut album was, Kris Kross can really no longer be classed as “in”.

DNA bond strength (nucleotides)
“Crazy Glue”:
Strongest bonds are between Cytosine and Guanine, strong like Crazy Glue (3 H-bonds), whereas the A=T only have 2 H-bonds. • This is relevant to DNA replication, as the weaker A=T will be the site where RNA primer makes the initial break.

Dicarboxylic acids (alpha, omega) C2 through C10: common names
“Oh My, Such Good Apple Pie, Sweet As Sugar!”:
Oxalic Malonic Succinic Glutaric Adipic Pimelic Suberic Azelaic Sebacic

Infantile Beriberi symptoms
Restlessness Sleeplessness Breathlessness Soundlessness (aphonia) Eatlessness (anorexia) Great heartedness (dilated heart)
• Alternatively: Get 5 of ’em with BERI: Breathless/ Big hearted, Eatless, Restless, Insomnia.

AcetylCoA and acetacetylCoA: amino acids forming them
“A Lighter Lease” (A LyTr LeIs):
A=AcetylCoA or Acetoacetyl CoA
Ly=Lysine
Tr=Tryptophan
Le=Leucine
Is=Isoleucine

Fasting state: branched-chain amino acids used by skeletal muscles
“Muscles LIVe fast”:
Leucine
Isoleucine
Valine

Glycolysis steps
“Goodness Gracious, Father Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies”:
Glucose
Glucose-6-P
Fructose-6-P
Fructose-1,6-diP
Dihydroxyacetone-P
Glyceraldehyde-P
1,3-Biphosphoglycerate
3-Phosphoglycerate
2-Phosphoglycerate (to)
Phosphoenolpyruvate [PEP] Pyruvate • ‘Did’, ‘By’ and ‘Pies’ tell you the first part of those three: di-, bi-, and py-.
• ‘PrEPare’ tells location of PEP in the process.

Fabry’s disease
FABRY’S:
Foam cells found in glomeruli and tubules/ Febrile episodes
Alpha galactosidase A deficiency/ Angiokeratomas
Burning pain in extremities/ BUN increased in serum/ Boys
Renal failure
YX genotype (male, X linked recessive)
Sphingolipidoses

B vitamin names
“The Rhythm Nearly Proved Contagious”:
• In increasing order: Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pyridoxine (B6) Cobalamin (B12)

BIOCHEM III

Electron transport chain: Rotenone’s site of action
Rotenone is a site specific inhibitor of complex one.

Citric acid cycle compounds
“Oh! Can I Keep Some Succinate For Myself?”:
Oxaloacetate Citrate Isocitrate Ketoglutarate Succinyl coA Succinate Fumarate Malate

Citric acid cycle compounds
“Oh Citric Acid Is Of (course) A SiLly STupid Funny Molecule”:
Oxaloacetate Citrate Aconitate Isocitrate Oxalosuccinate Alpha-ketoglutarate SuccinyL-CoA SuccinaTe Fumarate Malate
• SilLy and sTupid used to differentiate succinyL and succinaTe

Type 1 glycogen storage disease
Type 1 = one (Von), ie Von Giereke’s disease

Essential amino acids
PVT. TIM HALL: Phe Val Thr Trp Ile Met His Arg Leu Lys
• Pvt. is short for Private in the military.
• Arg and His are considered semiessential.
• Alternatively: “MATT VIL PHLy”.

Citric acid cycle compounds
“Can I Ask Sharon Stone For My Orgasm?”:
Citrate Isocitrate Alpha-Ketoglutarate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumerate Maleate Oxaloacetate

Golgi complex: functions
“Golgi Distributes A SPAM”:
Distributes proteins and lipids from ER
Add mannose onto specific lysosome proteins
Sulfation of sugars and slected tyrosine
Proteoglycan assembly
Add O-oligosugars to serine and threnonine
Modify N-ologosugars on asparagine

Pyruvate: products of complete oxidation
“4 Naked Fun 3 Coeds + 1 Guy”:
• Complete oxidation of pyruvate yields:
4 NADH FADH2 3 CO2 1 GTP

Catabolism steps of branched chain amino acids
“Truck hit the Ox to Death”:
Transamination
Oxidative decarboxylation
Dehydrogenation

Niacin deficiency: signs and symptoms
The famous 4 D’s:
Diarrhoea Dermatitis Dementia Death (if untreated)

Creatine phosphate: amino acid precursors
“Nice GAMs!”: Glycine Arginine Methionine
• Gam is slang for a person’s leg, especiallay an attractive female’s leg: “Nice gams = nice legs!”
• Creatine phosphate is a muscle energy store, and spontaneously converts to creatinine which is excreted in the urine in direct proportion to muscle mass: clinically useful, such as in MS Dx.

Enzymes: classification
“Over The HILL”:
Oxidoreductases
Transferases
Hydrolases
Isomerases
Ligases
Lyases
• Enzymes get reaction over the hill.

Insulin: function
INsulIN stimulates 2 things to go IN 2 cells: Potassium and Glucose.

Collagen concisely covered
COLLAGEN:
C-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Covalent Cross links/ C vitamin/ Connective tissue/ Cartilage/ Chondroblasts/ Copper Cofactor (Covalent Cross linking)
Outside the cell is where collagen normally functions/ Osteoblasts/ Osteogenesis imperfecta
Lysyl hydroxylase/ Lysyl oxidase (oxidatively deaminates lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues to form collagen cross links, last biosynthesis step)
Long triple helical fibers/ Ligaments
Alpha chains/ Attached by H bonds form triple helix/ Ascorbate for hydroxylation of lysyl and prolyl residues of pro-Alpha chains (postranslational modification)
Gly in every third position/ Glycosylation of hydroxyl group of hydroxylysine with Glucose and Galactose; GOlgi allows procollagen to GO outside of cell
Extracellular matrix/ Eye (cornea, sclera)/ Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
N-terminal propeptide (procollagen)/ Nonhelical terminal extensions
• Note: Procollagen LEAVEs the cell to be cLEAVEd by procollagen peptidases

BIOCHEM IV

Hypervitaminosis A: signs and symptoms
“Increased Vitamin A makes you HARD”:
Headache/ Hepatomegaly
Anorexia/ Alopecia
Really painful bones
Dry skin/ Drowsiness

Heme synthesis: amino acid precursors to basic unit of porphyrins, heme (pyrrole ring)
“Dracula wants to ^*&^* a Co-ed’s blood [think heme] with his Glystening teeth!”:
Succinyl CoA and Glycine are precursor amino acids to pyrrole rings, which is the basic unit of porphyrins and heme.

Enzymes: competitive inhibitors
“Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Km) with the same velocity”:
With competitive inhibitors, velocity remains same but Km increases

Phosphorylation cascade: action during low glucose
“In the Phasted State, Phosphorylate”:
The phosphorylation cascade becomes active when blood glucose is low.

Sickle cell anemia: mutation
“HbS isn’t Very Good”:
At Sixth position of HB beta chain, Valine is present instead of Glutamic acid.

tRNA: molecular shape
Fortunately, tRNA (Transfer RNA) is shaped like a capital T.

Malate-aspartate shuttle
“MAD commute”:
Malate in. Alpha-ketoglutarate and D (Aspartate) out.

Vitamins: which are fat soluble
KADE: Vitamin K Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E

Phenylketonuria: which enzyme is deficient
PHenylketonuria is caused by a deficiency of: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase

GENETICS

Nucleotides: purines vs. pyrimidines
“Guardian Angels are Pure, with two Wings”: G and A are Purines, with two Rings.

Nucleotides: purines
“AGUA PURa”: Adenine and GUAnine are PURines.
• “Agua pura” is spanish for “pure water”.

Hurler syndrome features HURLER’S:
Heptosplenomegaly
Ugly facies
Recessive (AR inheritance)
L-iduronidase deficiency (alpha)
Eyes clouded
Retarded Short/
Stubby fingers

Nucleotides: which are purines
“Pure Silver”:
• Chemical formula of Pure silver is Ag. Therefore, Purines are Adenine and Guanine.

Down syndrome features: complete
“My CHILD HAS PROBLEM!”:
Congenital heart disease/ Cataracts
Hypotonia/ Hypothyroidism
Incure 5th finger/ Increased gap between 1st and 2nd toe
Leukemia risk x2/ Lung problem
Duodenal atresia/ Delayed development
Hirshsprung’s disease/ Hearing loss
Alzheimer’s disease/ Alantoaxial instability
Squint/ Short neck
Protruding tongue/ Palm crease
Round face/ Rolling eye (nystagmus)
Occiput flat/ Oblique eye fissure
Brushfield spot/ Brachycephaly
Low nasal bridge/ Language problem
Epicanthic fold/ Ear folded
Mental retardation/ Myoclonus

Blots: function of Southern vs. Northern vs. Western
“SN0W DR0P”:
• Match up the 1st word letter with 2nd word letter:
Southern=DNA
Northern=RNA
Western=Protein
• The 0’s in snow drop are zeros, since there is no Eastern blot.

Down syndrome Pathology DOWN:
Decreased alpha-fetoprotein and unconjugated estriol (maternal)
One extra chromosome twenty-one
Women of advanced age
Nondisjunction during maternal meiosis

Pyrimidines nucleotides
“CUT the PY” (cut the pie):
Cytosine Uracil Thiamine are the PYrimidines

DiGeorge/ Velocardiofacial syndrome: features CATCH 22: Cardiac abnormalities
Abnormal facies
Thymic aplasia
Cleft palate
Hypocalcemia
22q11 deletion

Marfan syndrome features MARFAN:
Mitral valve prolapse
Aortic Aneurysm
Retinal detachment
Fibrillin
Arachnodactyly
Negative Nitroprusside test (differentiates from homocystinuria)

Cell cycle stages
“Go Sally Go! Make Children!”:
G1 phase (Growth phase 1)
S phase (DNA Synthesis)
G2 phase (Growth phase 2)
M phase (Mitosis)
C phase (Cytokinesis)

Cri-du-chat syndrome:
chromosomal deletion causing it is 5p(-)
What’s another name for a cat that’s five letters long and starts with a P? (Answer: AIPGE ).
Why is the cat crying? Missing its P.

APKD: genetics
ADult Polycystic Kidney Disease is Autosomal Dominant
• Also, “Polycystic kidney” has 16 letters and is due to a defect on chromosome 16.

Tay Sach’s features SACHS:
Spot in macula
Ashkenazic Jews
CNS degeneration
Hex A deficiency
Storage disease
• Extra details with TAY:
Testing recommended
Autosomal recessive/ Amaurosis
Young death (<4 yrs)

Chromosome 15 diseases
Chromosome 15 has its own MAP:
Marfan syndrome
Angelman syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome

Bartter syndrome: inheritance
BARtter syndrome is autosomal recessive (AR).

Nucleotides: double vs. triple bonded basepairs
“TU bonds” (two bonds):
T-A and U-A have Two bonds. G-C therefore has the three bonds.

Imprinting diseases: Prader-Willi and Angelman
“Pray to an Angel”:
Prader-Willi and Angelman are the 2 classic imprinting diseases. • Which disease results, depends on whether 15q deletion is maternal or paternal. Keep them straight by: Paternal is Prader-Willi.

9/5/07

۞Gayathri

thank u suddep.

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