01/22/2019

Targeting HIV’s Sugar Coating: New Microbicide May Block AIDS Virus from Infecting Cells

By Live Dr - Sun Oct 16, 1:28 pm

University of Utah researchers have discovered a new class of compounds that stick to the sugary coating of the AIDS virus and inhibit it from infecting cells — an early step toward a new treatment to prevent sexual transmission of the virus.

Bioengineer Patrick Kiser has discovered a new class of compounds that stick to the AIDS virus’ sugary coating to prevent it from infecting cells. The new substances may provide a way to prevent sexual transmission of the virus. (Credit: University of Utah)

Development and laboratory testing of the potential new microbicide to prevent human immunodeficiency virus infection is outlined in a study set for online publication in the journal Molecular Pharmaceutics.

Despite years of research, there is only one effective microbicide to prevent sexual transmission of HIV, which causes AIDS, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Microbicide development has focused on gels and other treatments that would be applied vaginally by women, particularly in Africa and other developing regions.

To establish infection, HIV must first enter the cells of a host organism and then take control of the cells’ replication machinery to make copies of itself. Those HIV copies in turn infect other cells. These two steps of the HIV life cycle, known as viral entry and viral replication, each provide a potential target for anti-AIDS medicines.

“Most of the anti-HIV drugs in clinical trials target the machinery involved in viral replication,” says the study’s senior author, Patrick F. Kiser, associate professor of bioengineering and adjunct associate professor of pharmaceutics and pharmaceutical chemistry at the University of Utah.

“There is a gap in the HIV treatment pipeline for cost-effective and mass-producible viral entry inhibitors that can inactivate the virus before it has a chance to interact with target cells,” he says.

Kiser conducted the study with Alamelu Mahalingham, a University of Utah graduate student in pharmaceutics and pharmaceutical chemistry; Anthony Geonnotti of Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C.; and Jan Balzarini of Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, and the Fund for Scientific Research, also in Belgium.

Synthetic Lectins Inhibit HIV from Entering Cells

Lectins are a group of molecules found throughout nature that interact and bind with specific sugars. HIV is coated with sugars that help to hide it from the immune system. Previous research has shown that lectins derived from plants and bacteria inhibit the entry of HIV into cells by binding to sugars found on the envelope coating the virus.

However, the cost of producing and purifying natural lectins is prohibitively high. So Kiser and his colleagues developed and evaluated the anti-HIV activity of synthetic lectins based on a compound called benzoboroxole, or BzB, which sticks to sugars found on the HIV envelope.

Kiser and his colleagues found that these BzB-based lectins were capable of binding to sugar residues on HIV, but the bond was too weak to be useful. To improve binding, they developed polymers of the synthetic lectins. The polymers are larger molecules made up of repeating subunits, which contained multiple BzB binding sites. The researchers discovered that increasing the number and density of BzB binding sites on the synthetic lectins made the substances better able to bind to the AIDS virus and thus have increased antiviral activity.

“The polymers we made are so active against HIV that dissolving about one sugar cube’s weight of the benzoboroxole polymer in a bath tub of water would be enough to inhibit HIV infection in cells,” says Kiser.

Depending on the strain, HIV displays significant variations in its viral envelope, so it is important to evaluate the efficacy of any potential new treatment against many different HIV strains.

Kiser and his colleagues found that their synthetic lectins not only showed similar activity across a broad spectrum of HIV strains, but also were specific to HIV and didn’t affect other viruses with envelopes.

The scientists also tested the anti-HIV activity of the synthetic lectins in the presence of fructose, a sugar present in semen, which could potentially compromise the activity of lectin-based drugs because it presents an alternative binding site. However, the researchers found that the antiviral activity of the synthetic lectins was fully preserved in the presence of fructose.

“The characteristics of an ideal anti-HIV microbicide include potency, broad-spectrum activity, selective inhibition, mass producibility and biocompatibility,” says Kiser. “These benzoboroxole-based synthetic lectins seem to meet all of those criteria and present an affordable and scalable potential intervention for preventing sexual transmission in regions where HIV is pandemic.”

Kiser says future research will focus on evaluating the ability of synthetic lectins to prevent HIV transmission in tissues taken from the human body, with later testing in primates. Kiser and his colleagues are also developing a gel form of the polymers, which could be used as a topical treatment for preventing sexual HIV transmission.

Link:Sciencedaily.com

89 Comments

Comments 51 - 89 of 89First« PrevNext »Last
  1. Major thankies for the blog.Thanks Again. Much obliged.

  2. I am only commenting to let you know what a great discovery my child found browsing your webblog. She noticed so many issues, with the inclusion of what it is like to have a great giving style to have other individuals smoothly grasp a variety of impossible subject matter. You undoubtedly did more than our own expectations. Many thanks for delivering those useful, safe, edifying and in addition fun thoughts on this topic to Ethel.

  3. “Self storage space is additionally fantastic option for catering companies, especially for catering services functioning out of their houses!”

  4. Wow because this is very great work! Congrats and keep it up.

  5. I enjoy you because of each of your effort on this web page. My mother enjoys going through investigation and it’s easy to understand why. Almost all notice all about the compelling means you present effective items by means of this website and in addition welcome contribution from other individuals on that topic while my daughter is in fact being taught a lot. Take advantage of the rest of the new year. You are always doing a wonderful job.

  6. Thank you for your blog.Much thanks again. Much obliged.

  7. I enjoy you because of your whole labor on this web page. Ellie takes pleasure in conducting research and it’s really easy to see why. We hear all concerning the compelling means you provide vital steps through this web site and as well invigorate participation from other ones on the topic while my child has been understanding a lot. Take advantage of the rest of the new year. You’re conducting a stunning job.

  8. I wanted to draft you a bit of note to thank you the moment again with the extraordinary thoughts you have documented in this article. It was so remarkably open-handed with people like you to provide unreservedly precisely what many people would’ve sold as an e-book to generate some bucks for themselves, notably seeing that you could possibly have done it if you desired. These suggestions likewise acted to be the easy way to realize that most people have a similar fervor just as my very own to see more in respect of this matter. I am sure there are lots of more pleasant situations up front for those who read your blog post.

  9. Don’t wear seat belts lest you drown in your own urine?

  10. I and also my pals were actually checking the great solutions from your web blog and so instantly came up with an awful suspicion I never expressed respect to the web blog owner for them. My young boys became very interested to read all of them and have in effect without a doubt been tapping into them. Many thanks for being quite accommodating and also for choosing these kinds of good ideas most people are really wanting to be informed on. Our own sincere regret for not saying thanks to you sooner.

  11. Thanks for each of your hard work on this blog. Kate loves doing research and it’s really easy to see why. My partner and i know all about the compelling manner you produce precious tips and hints on this website and even encourage response from people on this matter and our own girl is certainly being taught a lot. Have fun with the remaining portion of the year. You’re the one conducting a glorious job.

  12. Here are several of the web pages we suggest for our visitors.

  13. I needed to send you the bit of note in order to thank you very much the moment again considering the beautiful secrets you have discussed in this case. This is really strangely open-handed of people like you to supply unhampered just what a number of people would’ve made available for an ebook in order to make some money for themselves, even more so seeing that you might well have tried it if you considered necessary. These advice as well worked as a easy way to fully grasp the rest have the identical dreams just like my own to realize somewhat more with regard to this condition. I’m sure there are a lot more pleasant situations up front for individuals that scan through your blog.

  14. I in addition to my guys were found to be digesting the excellent ideas found on your website while suddenly came up with a horrible feeling I never thanked the blog owner for those techniques. The young men appeared to be consequently joyful to read through them and now have clearly been tapping into these things. Appreciate your truly being so helpful and for picking these kinds of marvelous subjects most people are really desperate to understand about. Our own sincere regret for not saying thanks to earlier.

  15. I in addition to my pals appeared to be digesting the nice items from your web blog then all of the sudden developed a horrible suspicion I never expressed respect to the web site owner for those techniques. Those women came very interested to learn them and already have in reality been taking advantage of them. Thank you for simply being so considerate and then for deciding upon some helpful subject areas most people are really needing to discover. Our honest apologies for not expressing appreciation to you earlier.

  16. Thanks-a-mundo for the blog article.Really thank you! Great.

  17. I happen to be commenting to make you understand of the superb experience our child gained visiting your site. She learned so many issues, which include what it’s like to have an amazing coaching character to let many others with no trouble fully grasp a variety of extremely tough issues. You truly did more than people’s expected results. Thank you for rendering those helpful, dependable, explanatory as well as cool thoughts on your topic to Mary.

  18. I simply wished to say thanks once more. I am not sure what I could possibly have accomplished without the type of strategies discussed by you concerning my area of interest. It absolutely was a real horrifying dilemma in my circumstances, nevertheless encountering this skilled way you managed it made me to leap with happiness. I will be happier for this support and in addition trust you find out what a powerful job you are providing training the others using your website. I am sure you have never met all of us.

  19. I enjoy you because of all of the efforts on this site. Gloria takes pleasure in doing research and it is simple to grasp why. Almost all learn all of the lively mode you create informative guides through this web site and as well boost contribution from visitors on that article so our favorite princess is now starting to learn a whole lot. Enjoy the remaining portion of the new year. You are always doing a first class job.

  20. I really liked your blog article.Much thanks again. Cool.

  21. I feel that is among the most vital information for me.
    And i am happy reading your article. But want to observation on few normal issues, The site style is great, the
    articles is in reality excellent : D. Good task,
    cheers

    Everton tröja

  22. Thank you for all your valuable work on this site. Debby takes pleasure in managing research and it’s really simple to grasp why. My partner and i notice all concerning the dynamic form you make very useful secrets by means of this web blog and therefore attract contribution from visitors about this area then our own child is certainly studying a great deal. Take advantage of the remaining portion of the new year. You have been conducting a splendid job.

  23. I actually wanted to send a comment so as to express gratitude to you for all the marvelous tips you are posting at this site. My time-consuming internet research has now been rewarded with high-quality details to go over with my colleagues. I ‘d mention that most of us visitors actually are extremely blessed to live in a fantastic community with so many special individuals with great methods. I feel rather blessed to have seen your entire web pages and look forward to really more amazing moments reading here. Thanks a lot once more for all the details.

  24. Thank you for all your valuable effort on this blog. My mum loves conducting investigation and it is easy to see why. Most people know all of the lively manner you give advantageous tips and hints on your website and even encourage participation from some other people on this theme while our princess is always discovering a lot. Have fun with the rest of the new year. You have been conducting a tremendous job.

  25. that could be the finish of this report. Here youll locate some internet sites that we believe you will enjoy, just click the hyperlinks over

  26. that could be the finish of this report. Right here you will find some sites that we think you will appreciate, just click the links over

  27. Thanks a lot for giving everyone remarkably breathtaking opportunity to read articles and blog posts from this blog. It really is so pleasing plus stuffed with fun for me and my office peers to search your web site at a minimum three times in one week to learn the newest things you have got. And definitely, we are usually fascinated with your brilliant advice served by you. Certain 4 ideas in this post are without a doubt the most efficient we’ve had.

  28. Fantastic article.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

  29. Wonderful items from you, man. I have be mindful your stuff
    prior to and you are just too wonderful. I actually like what
    you’ve acquired right here, certainly like what you are saying and the way in which by which you are saying it.
    You make it enjoyable and you continue to care for to stay it smart.
    I cant wait to learn far more from you. This is really a terrific website.

    magliette Roma

  30. I needed to draft you the bit of remark just to thank you very much as before on the stunning concepts you have provided on this page. This has been quite generous with people like you to present publicly just what a few people would have offered as an electronic book to make some dough on their own, especially given that you could possibly have tried it if you wanted. These concepts as well served as the easy way to fully grasp other people online have the same dreams the same as my own to learn great deal more in terms of this issue. I think there are many more enjoyable moments in the future for many who view your blog.

  31. When I originally commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time
    a comment is added I get four emails with the same comment.
    Is there any way you can remove people from that service?

    Bless you!

    Tottenham Hotspurs tröja

  32. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I encounter a blog that’s both educative and
    entertaining, and let me tell you, you have hit the nail on the head.

    The issue is something not enough folks are speaking intelligently about.

    I am very happy that I stumbled across this in my hunt for something concerning this.

    Arsenal fotbollströja barn

  33. Hello there, I discovered your web site via Google while searching for a related matter,
    your website got here up, it seems to be good. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

    Hi there, just changed into aware of your blog thru Google, and found that it is really informative.
    I am going to watch out for brussels. I’ll appreciate should you proceed this in future.
    Numerous folks shall be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

    maglia PSG poco prezzo

  34. I wanted to create you a little bit of observation so as to say thank you as before over the striking views you’ve shown on this site. It has been so unbelievably generous with people like you to give publicly all that many of us would have supplied for an ebook to help make some profit for their own end, mostly now that you might well have tried it in case you considered necessary. The suggestions likewise served to provide a fantastic way to be aware that some people have a similar interest just as my personal own to find out a whole lot more with regards to this matter. Certainly there are several more fun times up front for individuals that check out your blog.

  35. just beneath, are many totally not related web-sites to ours, nevertheless, they’re surely worth going over

  36. I simply wanted to post a small message to say thanks to you for all the unique instructions you are giving on this website. My extended internet search has now been honored with awesome points to write about with my co-workers. I ‘d declare that we website visitors are definitely lucky to dwell in a fantastic network with many brilliant individuals with very beneficial principles. I feel rather lucky to have encountered your entire website and look forward to so many more fun moments reading here. Thanks a lot again for everything.

  37. Hi! This is kind of off topic but I need some help from an established blog.
    Is it very difficult to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but
    I can figure things out pretty fast. I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure
    where to start. Do you have any tips or suggestions?
    Appreciate it

    Inter Milan ny trøje

  38. I intended to post you this very little remark to help thank you so much again over the pleasant guidelines you have provided at this time. It is simply shockingly generous of you to give unreservedly precisely what numerous people would’ve supplied as an ebook to end up making some profit for themselves, especially now that you could possibly have tried it in the event you decided. These thoughts as well served to become a great way to understand that most people have the same eagerness the same as my very own to grasp good deal more pertaining to this matter. Certainly there are a lot more enjoyable occasions up front for folks who look over your site.

  39. I wanted to send you this little note to help give many thanks the moment again just for the gorgeous tricks you’ve provided above. It’s certainly open-handed with people like you to make openly what a few individuals could have advertised for an electronic book to help make some profit for themselves, and in particular now that you could have tried it in case you decided. The solutions in addition worked to become great way to be aware that some people have a similar eagerness just as my own to grasp many more when it comes to this issue. I think there are many more enjoyable moments in the future for many who see your website.

Comments 51 - 89 of 89First« PrevNext »Last

Leave a Reply