usmle step 1 first aid exam guide RAPID REVIEW HIGH-YI E LD SYSTEMS

By Live Dr - Mon Dec 01, 1:34 am



Most Frequent Cause of …

Addison’s Autoimmune (infection is the 2nd most common cause)

Aneurysm, dissecting Hypertension

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and Atherosclerosis

descending aorta

Aortic aneurysm, ascending 3° syphilis

Bacterial meningitis (adults) Neisseria meningitidis

Bacterial meningitis (elderly) Streptococcus pneumoniae

Bacterial meningitis (kids) Haemophilus influenzae type B

Bacterial meningitis (newborns) E. coli

Cancer associated with AIDS Kaposi’s sarcoma

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 21-hydroxylase deficiency

Cretinism Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

Cushing’s syndrome Corticosteroid therapy (2nd most common cause is excess ACTH secretion by


Death in CML Blast crisis

Death in SLE Lupus nephropathy

Dementia Alzheimer’s (2nd most common is multi-infarct)

DIC Gram-negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma

Ejection click Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

Food poisoning S. aureus

Glomerulonephritis (adults) IgA nephropathy (Berger’s disease)

Hematoma-epidural Rupture of middle meningeal artery (arterial bleeding is fast)

Hematoma-subdural Rupture of bridging veins (trauma; venous bleeding is slow)

Hemochromatosis Multiple blood transfusions (can result in CHF and . risk of hepatocellular


Hepatic cirrhosis EtOH

Hepatocellular carcinoma Cirrhotic liver (often associated with hepatitis B and C)

Holosystolic murmur VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

Hypertension, 2° Renal disease

Hypoparathyroidism Thyroidectomy

Hypopituitarism Adenoma

Infection in blood transfusion Hepatitis C

Infection in burn victims Pseudomonas



Leukemia (adults) AML

“Machine-like” murmur PDA

Mental retardation Down syndrome (fragile X is the second most common cause)

MI Atherosclerosis

Mitral valve stenosis Rheumatic heart disease

Myocarditis Coxsackie B

Nephrotic syndrome (adults) Membranous glomerulonephritis

Nephrotic syndrome (kids) Minimal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat with


Opening snap Mitral stenosis

Osteomyelitis S. aureus

Osteomyelitis in patients with sickle Salmonella

cell disease

Osteomyelitis with IVDA Pseudomonas

Pancreatitis (acute) EtOH and gallstones

Pancreatitis (chronic) EtOH (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

Peau d’orange Carcinoma of the breast

PID Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)

Pneumonia, hospital-acquired Klebsiella

Pneumonia in cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

burn infection

Preventable blindness Chlamydia

Primary amenorrhea Turner’s (XO)

Primary hyperaldosteronism Adenoma of adrenal cortex

Primary hyperparathyroidism Adenoma

Pulmonary hypertension COPD

Right heart failure due to a Cor pulmonale

pulmonary cause

Right-sided heart failure Left-sided heart failure

Sheehan’s syndrome Postpartum pituitary infarction 2° to hemorrhage

SIADH Small cell carcinoma of the lung

UTI E. coli

UTI (young women) E. coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus



Topic Equation Page

Sensitivity Sensitivity =a 63

a + c

Specificity Specificity =d 63

b + d

Positive predictive value PPV =a 63

a + b

Negative predictive value NPV =d 63

c + d

Relative risk

RR =

a 63

a + b


c + d

Attributable risk AR = a c 63

a + b

c + d

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p2 + 2pq + q2 =1 106

p + q = 1

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation pH = pKa + log [HCO3

-] 382

0.03 PCO2

Volume of distribution

Vd =

amount of drug in the body 195

plasma drug concentration

Clearance CL = rate of elimination of drug 195

plasma drug concentration

Half-life t1/2=

0.7 × Vd 195


Loading dose

LD = Cp ×

Vd 195


Maintenance dose

MD = Cp ×

CL 195


Cardiac output

CO =

rate of O2 consumption 218

arterial O2 content – venous O2 content

Cardiac output CO = stroke volume × heart rate 218

Mean arterial pressure MAP = cardiac output × total peripheral resistance 218

Mean arterial pressure MAP = 1/3 systolic + 2/3 diastolic 218

Stroke volume SV = end diastolic volume – end systolic volume 218

Ejection fraction

EF =

stroke volume

× 100


end diastolic volume


R =

driving pressure


8. (viscosity) × length 219

flow p r4

Net filtration pressure Pnet = (Pc – Pi) – (pc – pi) 227

Glomerular filtration rate GFR = Uinulin × V = Cinulin



Glomerular filtration rate GFR = Kf [(PGC – PBS) – (pGC – pBS)] 377

Effective renal plasma flow ERPF = UPAH × V = CPAH



Renal blood flow RBF = RPF 377

1 – Hct

Filtration fraction FF = GFR 378


Free water clearance CH2O = V – Cosm 378

Physiologic dead space

VD = VT ×

(PaCO2 – PeCO2) 413






How to Use

the Database

World Wide Web Sites



Behavioral Science



and Immunology




Commercial Review


Publisher Contacts


Top-Rated Review





This section is a database of top-rated basic science review books, sample examination books, software,

Web sites, and commercial review courses that have been marketed to medical students studying for the

USMLE Step 1. At the end of the section is a list of publishers and independent bookstores with addresses

and phone numbers. For each book, we list the Title of the book, the First Author (or editor), the

Series Name (where applicable), the Current Publisher, the Copyright Year, the Number of Pages, the

ISBN Code, the Approximate List Price, the Format of the resource, and the Number of Test Questions.

The entries for most books also include Summary Comments that describe their style and overall

utility for studying. Finally, each book receives a Rating. Books are sorted into a comprehensive section

as well as into sections corresponding to the seven traditional basic medical science disciplines (anatomy,

behavioral science, biochemistry, microbiology and immunology, pathology, pharmacology, and physiology).

Within each section, books are arranged first by Rating and then alphabetically by First Author

within each Rating group.

For the 2006 edition of First Aid for the® USMLE Step 1, the database of rated review books has been reorganized

and updated with the addition of many new books and software and with the removal of some

older, outdated items. A letter rating scale with six different grades reflects the detailed student evaluations

for Rated Resources. Each rated resource receives a rating as follows:

A+ Excellent for boards review.


A- Very good for boards review; choose among the group.



Good, but use only after exhausting better sources.

B- Fair, but there are many better books in the discipline; or low-yield subject material.

The Rating is meant to reflect the overall usefulness of the resource in preparing for the USMLE Step 1

examination. This is based on a number of factors, including:

The cost

The readability of the text

The appropriateness and accuracy of the material

The quality and number of sample questions

The quality of written answers to sample questions

The quality and appropriateness of the illustrations (e.g., graphs, diagrams, photographs)

The length of the text (longer is not necessarily better)

The quality and number of other resources available in the same discipline

The importance of the discipline for the USMLE Step 1 examination

Please note that ratings do not reflect the quality of the resources for purposes other than reviewing for

the USMLE Step 1 examination. Many books with lower ratings are well written and informative but are

not ideal for boards preparation. We have not listed or commented on general textbooks available in the

basic sciences.


Evaluations are based on the cumulative results of formal and informal surveys of thousands of medical

students at many medical schools across the country. The summary comments and overall ratings represent

a consensus opinion, but there may have been a broad range of opinion or limited student feedback

on any particular resource.

Please note that the data listed are subject to change in that:

Publishers’ prices change frequently.

Bookstores often charge an additional markup.

New editions come out frequently, and the quality of updating varies.

The same book may be reissued through another publisher.

We actively encourage medical students and faculty to submit their opinions and ratings of these basic

science review materials so that we may update our database. (See p. xvii, How to Contribute.) In addition,

we ask that publishers and authors submit for evaluation review copies of basic science review

books, including new editions and books not included in our database. We also solicit reviews of new

books or suggestions for alternate modes of study that may be useful in preparing for the examination,

such as flash cards, computer-based tutorials, commercial review courses, and World Wide Web sites.

Disclaimer/Conflict of Interest Statement

No material in this book, including the ratings, reflects the opinion or influence of the publisher.

All errors and omissions will gladly be corrected if brought to the attention of the authors through

the publisher. Please note that the entire Underground Clinical Vignette series are independent

publications by the authors of this book; their ratings are based solely on data from the student survey

and feedback forms.



A Kaplan Medical (Qbank) $199 for one month; Test/2000+ q

KAPLAN $279 for three months


An Internet-based question bank providing tailored boards-format exams.

Test content and performance feedback are provided by organ

system and discipline. Questions are similar in style and content to

those on the actual exam. Includes well-written, detailed explanations.

Costs vary with subscription period but are generally high. A

physiology-specific Qbank with more than 750 questions is also available,

as is an Integrated Clinical Vignettes Qbank with more than

1200 clinical case-based boards review questions. Requires considerable

time commitment.

A WebPath: The Internet Pathology Laboratory Free Review/1000+ q



Features a wealth of outstanding gross and microscopic illustrations,

clinical vignette questions, and case studies. Contains many classic,

high-quality illustrations. Includes 8 general pathology exams and 11

system-based exams with a total of more than 800 questions. Also includes

170 questions associated with images. Questions reflect current

boards format and difficulty level but are typically shorter. A WebPath

CD-ROM is available for $60.00 and features the online Web site

plan supplemented with additional illustrations, topics, tutorials, and

radiology. The CD-ROM is ideal for computers with slow or no Internet


A- Digital Anatomist Interactive Atlases Free Review



A good site containing an interactive neuroanatomy course along with

a three-dimensional atlas of the brain, thorax, and knee. Atlases have

computer-generated images along with cadaver dissections. Each atlas

also has a useful quiz in which users identify structures in the slide

images. An excellent source for reviewing neuro images.



A- The Pathology Guy Free Review



A free Web site containing extensive but poorly organized information

on a variety of fundamental concepts in pathology. Excellent

collection of high-yield facts in “Ed’s Pathology Review for

USMLE,” which is buried at the end of each pathology topic page.

Philosophical and religious digressions can impede a rapid review

of the site.

B+ Blackwell’s Step 1 Online Q&A Free Test/350 q


Blackwell Science


A full-length, seven-block, 350-question practice exam in a format similar

to that of the real exam. Questions come with explanations related

to the selected answer only. The user can bookmark questions and can

take the test all at once or by section. Limited student feedback.

B+ Introduction to Clinical Microbiology Free Review


A basic introduction to and review of the fundamentals of microbiology.

Includes a useful review of the different types of culture media

and lab tests. The information on bugs is a shallow but quick read.

B The Whole Brain Atlas Free Review



A collection of high-quality brain MR and CT images with views of

normal, aging, and diseased brains (CVA, degenerative, neoplastic,

and inflammatory diseases). The interface is technologically impressive

but complex. Guided tours and image correlations to cases are especially

useful. Although not all of the images are particularly high

yield for the boards, this is an excellent introduction to neuroimaging.

B USMLEasy $99 for one month; Test/2800 q

MCGRAW-HILL $199 for three months


An Internet-based question bank based on the PreTest series consisting

of approximately 2800 questions. Requires an online subscription.

Some questions are more obscure than those appearing on the actual

exam. Users can track questions completed as well as customize tests.

Presented in boards format. Useful as a supplemental review after

other resources have been exhausted.


B- Active Learning Centre Free Test/100 q



A quiz engine site based on a large database with an extensive list of

bugs, drugs, and vaccines. Questions generated test the basic characteristics

of each element in the database in a multiple-choice, matching,

or essay format that the user selects. Questions are not boards

style but are useful for learning the memory-intensive subjects of microbiology

and pharmacology.




A- Kaplan’s USMLE Step 1 Home Study Program $449.00 Review/1200 q


Kaplan, 2005, ISBN 0X63410105

Includes two organ system-based review books, a test-taking and strategy

guide, a Qbook of 850 questions, and a CD-ROM with 350 questions

in one full-length simulation. Very dense and comprehensive.

Useful only if started early, possibly with coursework. Excellent as a

reference for studying. Somewhat expensive for the amount of material.

The software is also available separately. Books and CD-ROMs

can be purchased by calling 1-800-KAP-ITEM.

A- Step-Up: A High-Yield, Systems-Based Review $34.95 Review

for the USMLE Step 1


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, 360 pages,

ISBN 0781737931

A unique organ system-based review text useful for integrating the basic

sciences covered in Step 1. Composed primarily of outlines,

charts, tables, and diagrams. The appendix includes 38 clinical cases

and an alphabetical section on pharmacology. Contains some errors.

The organ system format appeals to many students and serves as a

good contrast to other review sources. Includes useful “quick hit”


B+ Underground Clinical Vignettes: Step 1 Bundle $143.95 Review


Blackwell Science, 2005, 9 volumes, ISBN 1405104082

All nine volumes of the UCV Step 1 books. Designed for easy

quizzing. Case-based vignettes provide a good review supplement.

Best if started early with coursework or used in conjunction with another

primary review source.

B+ Blueprints Step 1 Q&A $28.95 Test/350 q


Blackwell Science, 2003, 167 pages, ISBN 140510323X

Contains one full-length exam of 350 questions split into blocks of 50.

Written by students. Excellent for practicing the multistep questions

that are becoming increasingly prevalent on the real exam. Questions

are at times overly specific but overall are high yield.


B+ Appleton and Lange’s USMLE Step 1 Outline Review $39.95 Review


McGraw-Hill, 2003, 300 pages, ISBN 0071390170

A comprehensive outline review of basic science topics. Includes essential

facts, diseases, and disorders. Also offers a bulleted treatment of

major abnormal processes by system. Includes black-and-white images

of pathology and histology throughout.

B+ Rapid Review for USMLE Step 1 $34.95 Review/1400 q


Mosby, 2002, 314 pages, ISBN 0323008410

Outline format with high-yield marginal notes, figures, and tables that

highlight key content. Narrative clinical boxes illustrate clinical relevance.

Practice exams provide clinically oriented questions. The CDROM

includes the questions from the book but is poorly designed

without an option to omit already-answered questions from practice

sessions. Reviews are mixed regarding the similarity of the content to

the actual exam; however, the format is comparable.

B+ Lange Q&A for the USMLE Step 1 $39.95 Test/1195 q


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 480 pages, ISBN 0071445781

Features seven subject-based tests and three 100-question comprehensive

exams. A good buy for the number of questions. Gives exhaustive

explanations of right and wrong answers and offers a reasonable,

straightforward, question-based review with which to assess your

strengths and weaknesses. Testing includes references to diagrams, images,

and a few color plates.

B+ NMS Review for USMLE Step 1 $42.95 Test/850 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 436 pages,

ISBN 0781732921

A text that includes a CD-ROM and serves as a good source of practice

questions and answers. Some questions are too picky or difficult.

Annotated explanations are well written but are sometimes unnecessarily

detailed. Organized as 17 practice exams. The six pages of color

plates are helpful. The CD-ROM attempts to simulate the CBT format

but is disorganized.



B+ Kaplan’s USMLE Step 1 Qbook $44.95 Test/850 q


Kaplan, 2005, 446 pages, ISBN 0743262387

Consists of seventeen 50-question exams organized by the traditional

basic science disciplines. Good USMLE-style questions with clear,

detailed explanations. Lacks classic images typically seen on the

exam. Comparable to the Lange and NMS question reviews.

B USMLE Step 1 Secrets $37.95 Review


Elsevier, 2004, 313 pages, ISBN 1560535709

Clarifies difficult concepts in a concise, easy-to-read manner. Complements

other boards study material in that it helps students understand

preclinical fundamentals rather than encouraging the rote

memorization of facts. The easy-to-read style allows for rapid review

during downtime. The only drawback is its limited breadth.

B Medical Boards-Step 1 Made Ridiculously Simple $29.95 Review


MedMaster, 2003, 367 pages, ISBN 0940780593

Quick and easy reading. The table and chart format is organized by

subject. Reviews are mixed. Some charts are poorly labeled. Consider

as an adjunct. Compare with Yeh’s Crashing the Boards: USMLE

Step 1.

B Gold Standard Prep Set for USMLE Step 1 $309.00 Audiotapes


Gold Standard, 2004

A set of 48 approximately 90-minute audiotapes covering USMLE

Step 1 material. Limited but positive feedback on an updated and expanded

set of audiotapes. Used by some students as a way to review

while driving, while working out, and during downtime. Contains

some inaccuracies. Available only by mail order through the company’s

Web site, www.boardprep.net.

B PreTest Clinical Vignettes for the USMLE Step 1 $24.95 Test/400 q


McGraw-Hill, 2004, 366 pages, ISBN 0071422918

Clinical vignette-style questions with detailed explanations. Organized

as eight blocks of 50 questions covering basic sciences. Serves as

a good self-evaluation tool, although questions may not mirror those

on the actual USMLE exam.


B Cracking the Boards: USMLE Step 1 $34.95 Review/400 q


Random House, 2000, 796 pages, ISBN 0375761632

A comprehensive text review based on the USMLE content outline,

written by past and present medical students. The style is wordy and

broad but offers few details. The organ-based format appeals to some

students. Includes many labeled illustrations, charts, and photos.

B USMLE Step 1 Recall: Buzzwords for the Boards $34.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 464 pages,

ISBN 0781745136

Quizzes on main topics and key points presented in a two-column

question-and-answer format. Good for self-testing, group study, and

quick review. Use as a change of pace. Hits many important clinical

features but is not comprehensive or tightly organized. Sometimes focuses

on obscure details and memorization rather than on the comprehension

and integration that the real exam emphasizes.

B USMLE Step 1 Recall PDA: Buzzwords for the Boards $32.95 PDA


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, ISBN 078173343X

The PDA version of the book of the same name. Useful for quick review.

B Crashing the Boards: USMLE Step 1 $27.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999, 167 pages,

ISBN 0781719771

Brief coverage of high-yield topics. Great diagrams; exhibits a good

sense of humor. No photos are included. Good organization (bulleted

facts and highlighted boxing); useful for supplementary, last-minute

review. Incomplete and outdated book reviews are included in the

back. Retains outdated strategies for the paper-and-pencil exam. Compare

with Carl’s Medical Boards-Step 1 Made Ridiculously Simple.

B- Exam Master Step 1 $149.00 Test/8000 q


Exam Master Corporation, 2001, ISBN 1581290683

Windows/Mac-based testing software with access to up to 8000 Step 1

questions. Questions are relatively simple, but some are obscure. Offers

the ability to hide multiple-choice options. The new version eliminates

K-type, nonclinical questions and provides compatibility with

Windows 98.



B- Rypins’ Basic Sciences Review, Vol. I $39.95 Review/1000 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, 832 pages,

ISBN 0781725186

A multitopic textbook with few figures and tables. A good general reference,

but should be used with other subject-specific sources. Well

priced for the number of pages and questions. Requires extensive time

commitment. Includes good pathology/pharmacology coverage.

B- Rypins’ Questions and Answers for Basic Sciences Review $34.95 Test/1600 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, 288 pages,

ISBN 0781725208

Questions with answers to supplement Rypins’ Basic Sciences Review.

A decent overall question-based review of all subjects. Good-quality

questions, but answers lack detail. Requires time commitment. Includes




A- High-Yield Embryology $24.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, 151 pages,

ISBN 0781721326

A very good, concise review of embryology for the USMLE. Offers excellent

organization with clinical correlations. Includes a high-yield

list of embryologic origins of tissues. No index or questions.

A- High-Yield Neuroanatomy $24.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 178 pages,

ISBN 0781758998

A clean, easy-to-read outline format. Offers straightforward text with

excellent diagrams and illustrations. The first several chapters are particularly

good. Compare with Goldberg’s Clinical Neuroanatomy

Made Ridiculously Simple. No index.

A- Rapid Review: Gross and Developmental Anatomy $31.95 Review/100 q


Mosby, 2002, 220 pages, ISBN 0323012019

A detailed treatment of basic anatomy and embryology, presented in

an outline format similar to that of other books in the series. At times

more detailed than necessary for boards review. Contains high-yield

charts and figures throughout. Two 50-question tests with extensive

explanations are included, with additional questions on the CDROM.

Compare to High-Yield Anatomy.

A- Case Files: Gross Anatomy $29.95 Review


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 345 pages, ISBN 0071437797

A resource that offers both gross anatomy basics and clinical cases covering

several high-yield anatomy topics. Also features a concise discussion

of anatomy essentials. Contains few diagrams, but those that are

included are high yield.



A- USMLE Road Map: Gross Anatomy $19.95 Review/100 q


McGraw-Hill, 2003, 250 pages, ISBN 0071399216

An outline treatment of gross anatomy with clinical correlations

throughout. Also features high-yield facts in boldface along with numerous

high-yield charts and figures. Clinical problems with explanations

are given at the end of each chapter. An especially effective

chart format is employed throughout, with clearly labeled illustrations

of basic anatomy. Limited student feedback

A- USMLE Road Map: Neuroscience $24.95 Review/80 q


McGraw-Hill, 2004, 210 pages, ISBN 0071422870

An outline review of basic anatomy and physiology with clinical correlations

throughout. Also features high-yield facts in boldface along

with numerous high-yield charts and figures. Clinical problems with

explanations are given at the end of each chapter. Limited student


B+ Rapid Review: Histology and Cell Biology $29.95 Review/100 q


Mosby, 2002, 215 pages, ISBN 0323008348

Similar to other books in the series. Features an outline of basic concepts

with numerous charts, but histology images are very limited.

Two 50-question multiple-choice tests are presented with explanations.

The CD-ROM contains additional questions and pathology images.

Compare to High-Yield Histology.

B+ High-Yield Gross Anatomy $24.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 190 pages,

ISBN 0781730430

An excellent, concise review with clinical correlations. Contains welllabeled,

high-yield radiologic images. May be useful to supplement

with an atlas. No index.

B+ High-Yield Histology $24.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004, 288 pages,

ISBN 0781747635

A quick and easy review of a relatively low-yield subject. Tables include

some high-yield information. Contains good pictures. The appendix

features classic electron micrographs.


B+ Clinical Neuroanatomy Made Ridiculously Simple $19.95 Review/Few q


MedMaster, 2003, 97 pages, ISBN 0940780461

An easy-to-read, memorable, and simplified format with clever handdrawn

diagrams. Offers a quick, high-yield review of clinical neuroanatomy.

Good emphasis on clinically relevant pathways, cranial

nerves, and neurologic diseases. Includes a CD-ROM that offers CT

and MRI images as well as a tutorial on neurologic localization. Compare

with Fix’s High-Yield Neuroanatomy.

B+ BRS Gross Anatomy Flash Cards $29.95 Flash cards


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 254 pages,

ISBN 0781756545

High-yield anatomy clinical cases presented in flash-card format.

Anatomy basics are generally excluded. A useful, boards-relevant resource

for students who like to study with flash cards and are reasonably

well versed in anatomy.

B+ Blueprints Notes & Cases: Neuroscience $28.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004, 228 pages,

ISBN 1405103493

High-yield cases followed by a discussion and tables, presented in a

format similar to that of other books in the Blueprints series. Offers

important gross neuroanatomy and neurophysiology facts, but diagrams

must be improved if the book is to be considered sufficiently

comprehensive for boards review.

B Neuroscience at a Glance $29.95 Review


Blackwell Science, 2003, 128 pages, ISBN 1405111240

A high-yield treatment of basic principles in neuroscience using figures

only, with one topic presented on each page. Includes a highly

effective appendix of pathways. Most useful when used with the neuroscience

course. Limited student feedback.

B Underground Clinical Vignettes: Anatomy $17.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 128 pages,

ISBN 1405104090

Concise clinical cases illustrating approximately 100 frequently tested

diseases with an anatomic basis. Cardinal signs, symptoms, and buzzwords

are highlighted. Use as a supplement to other sources of review.



B Platinum Vignettes: Anatomy and Embryology $24.95 Review


Elsevier, 2003, 110 pages, ISBN 1560535814

Fifty clinical case scenarios presented in a user-friendly format, with

the question appearing on the front of each page and the answer

printed on the back. Similar in style to other books in the Platinum

Vignettes series; may be of benefit for students who wish to self-quiz.

Relatively few cases are presented considering that both anatomy and

embryology are covered. Expensive for amount of material.

B BRS Embryology $34.95 Review/500 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 287 pages,

ISBN 0781757266

An outline-based review of embryology that is typical for the BRS series.

Offers a good but overly detailed review of important embryology.

A discussion of congenital malformations is included at the end

of each chapter along with relevant questions. The comprehensive

exam at the end of the book is high yield.

B BRS Neuroanatomy $32.95 Review/500 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 457 pages,

ISBN 0781728290

An updated text that covers the anatomy and embryology of the nervous

system. Complete but lengthy; requires time commitment.

Compare with High-Yield Neuroanatomy by the same author.

B BRS Cell Biology and Histology $32.95 Review/500 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, 352 pages,

ISBN 0781733103

An outline format that is useful for looking up cell biology and histology

information, presented in a style that is typical of the BRS series.

Could be used alone for cell biology review, but not enough histology

images to be considered comprehensive. Includes a CD-ROM with


B Clinical Anatomy Made Ridiculously Simple $19.95 Review


MedMaster, 2002, 175 pages, ISBN 0940780534

Easy reading, simple diagrams, and lots of mnemonics and amusing

associations. Incomplete. The humorous style has variable appeal to

students, so browse before buying. Offers good coverage of selected

topics. Best if used during coursework.


B Netter’s Atlas of Human Physiology $39.95 Review


Icon Learning Systems, 2002, 250 pages, ISBN 1929007019

An organ system-based text with more than 250 of Dr. Netter’s classic

illustrations. Offers a clear, concise, “big picture” view of physiology.

May be too detailed for boards review. Limited student feedback.

B PreTest Neuroscience $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 322 pages, ISBN 0071436510

Similar to other books in the PreTest series. Features a question-andanswer

format that is not necessarily in USMLE style. Black-andwhite

images are referenced to questions throughout. Includes a brief

high-yield section. Limited student feedback.

B Wheater’s Functional Histology $64.95 Review


Elsevier, 2000, 413 pages, ISBN 0443056129

A color atlas with pictures of normal histology and accompanying

text. Useful as a text for coursework. Skim through the photomicrographs

for USMLE review. Image captions provide an excellent

source for the review of basic cell biology.

B- Anatomy Recall $32.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000, 368 pages,

ISBN 0683304364

Presented in question-and-answer format. Good for quick review, but

may be too detailed for boards review.

B- BRS Gross Anatomy $32.95 Review/500 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 530 pages,

ISBN 0781753090

A detailed, lengthy text in outline format with illustrations and tables.

Better for coursework than for quick boards review. Features a good

clinical correlation section.

B- Essentials of Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology $29.95 Review


F. A. Davis, 2003, 281 pages, ISBN 0803607725

A well-organized discussion of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and

neuropharmacology presented with illustrations and images. Too

dense for boards review.



B- PreTest Anatomy, Histology, & Cell Biology $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 526 pages, ISBN 0071437495

Difficult questions with detailed answers as well as some illustrations.

Requires extensive time commitment. Includes a high-yield section

that highlights clinically relevant relationships and lessons.

B- Histology and Neural Anatomy: Comprehensive Review $25.95 Review/2000 q

in 2000 Multiple-Choice Questions and Answers


Biotest, Inc., 2004, 427 pages, ISBN 1893720136

A comprehensive outline review. Lacks illustrations and includes a

large number of low-quality questions with no explanations, but answers

are cross-referenced to the text. Consider using with coursework.

Limited student feedback.

B- Clinical Anatomy: An Illustrated Review with Questions $32.00 Review/500 q

and Explanations


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, 272 pages,

ISBN 0781729890

A well-organized summary of Snell’s major book. Includes excellent

diagrams and tables. Questions incorporate radiographs, CT scans,

and MRIs. Does not cover neuroanatomy or embryology. Neither the

text nor the questions are as clinical as the title implies. Only some

answers have explanations, and most are too short.

B- Imaging Atlas of Human Anatomy $44.95 Atlas


Elsevier, 2003, 226 pages, ISBN 0723432112

An atlas of diagnostic images for all major systems, including MRIs,

CT scans, and brief explanations of diagnostic methods. Useful primarily

as an imaging reference for boards review.



A High-Yield Behavioral Science $19.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, 144 pages,

ISBN 0781730848

A clear, concise, quick review of behavioral science. Offers a logical

presentation with crammable charts, graphs, and tables. Features a

short but adequate statistics chapter. No index.

A- Underground Clinical Vignettes: Behavioral Science $17.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 114 pages,

ISBN 1405104104

Concise clinical cases illustrating commonly tested diseases in behavioral

science. Cardinal signs, symptoms, and buzzwords are highlighted.

Use as a supplement to other review sources. Although the

case diagnoses have been moved to the back of the book, the discussion

still reveals the answer on the same page. Some cases lack detail.

Twenty questions are included in the back.

A- BRS Behavioral Science $32.95 Review/500 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 292 pages,

ISBN 0781757274

An easy-to-read outline format with boldfacing of key terms. Offers

good, detailed coverage of high-yield topics. The text is lengthy and

gives more information than may be needed for the USMLE. Includes

excellent tables and charts as well as a short but complete statistics

chapter. Offers great coverage of ethics and patient communication

topics. Also features good review questions, including a

100-question comprehensive exam at the end of the book. The font

size of the new edition is significantly smaller than that of previous




A- Blueprints Notes & Cases: Behavioral Science $28.95 Review/184 q

and Epidemiology


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004, 201 pages,

ISBN 1405103558

A case-oriented approach toward behavioral science, presented as part

of the Blueprints Notes & Cases series. Includes the HPI, a basic science

review and discussion, key points, and questions. The 8.5- by 11-

inch layout may feel overwhelming to some, but the font size is conducive

to easy review. A good way to master the intangibles of

behavioral science, but slightly more detailed than warranted for

boards review.

A- Rapid Review: Behavioral Science $32.95 Review/100 q


Mosby, 2004, 352 pages, ISBN 0323020070

A quick outline format covering basic topics in behavioral science,

human development, and biostatistics, presented in a format similar

to that of other books in the Rapid Review series. Two 50-question

multiple-choice tests are included with explanations. Somewhat more

detailed on specific disorders, but not sufficient as a sole biostatistics

review. The CD-ROM contains additional questions. Compare with

High-Yield Behavioral Science. Limited student feedback.

B+ Platinum Vignettes Series: Behavioral Science $24.95 Review


Elsevier, 2003, 106 pages, ISBN 1560535768

A series of cases followed by explanations and discussions on the following

page, presented in a format similar to that of other books in the

Platinum Vignettes series. In contrast to the Underground Clinical Vignettes,

the Platinum series includes vignettes for biostatistics; however,

there are only half as many cases. Expensive for the amount of


B+ High-Yield Biostatistics $24.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 104 pages,

ISBN 078179644X

A well-written text, but some explanations are confusing. Offers extensive

coverage for a low-yield topic. Includes good review questions

and tables. For the motivated student; not for last-minute cramming.

Suitable as a course companion. Best used in conjunction with a behavioral

science resource.


B+ USMLE Behavioral Science Made Ridiculously Simple $16.95 Review


MedMaster, 1998, 171 pages, ISBN 0940780348

Easy reading, and reasonably high yield for the amount of text. Includes

medical sociology; strong on psychopathology with illustrative

examples. No biostatistics. Sometimes offers too much detail on lowyield


B Behavioral Sciences and Outpatient Medicine $19.95 Review

for the Boards and Wards


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, 100 pages,

ISBN 0632045787

Presented in a clear and informative format similar to that of other

books in the Boards and Wards series. Covers some low-yield topics.

B- PreTest Behavioral Science $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2002, 358 pages, ISBN 0071374701

Contains detailed answers cross-referenced with other resources.

Good test questions. Requires time commitment. Includes a brief

high-yield section.




A- Underground Clinical Vignettes: Biochemistry $17.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 113 pages,

ISBN 1405104112

Concise clinical cases illustrating approximately 100 frequently tested

diseases with a biochemical basis. Cardinal signs, symptoms, and

buzzwords are highlighted. A useful supplement to other sources of


A- Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry $44.95 Review/250 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 534 pages,

ISBN 0781722659

An excellent book that offers good clinical correlations as well as

highly effective color diagrams. Offers a comprehensive review of biochemistry,

including some low-yield topics. The new edition also includes

high-yield chapter summaries and a “big picture” chapter at

the end of the book that highlights the most important concepts. Requires

time commitment; skim high-yield diagrams to maximize

USMLE review. Best used with coursework.

A- Rapid Review: Biochemistry $31.95 Review/100 q


Mosby, 2003, 320 pages, ISBN 0323008356

A quick outline format covering basic topics in biochemistry, presented

in a format similar to that of other books in the Rapid Review

series. High-yield disease correlation boxes are useful for review. Excellent

tables and high-yield figures are featured throughout. Also includes

two 50-question multiple-choice tests with explanations plus a

CD-ROM with additional questions. Compare to High-Yield Biochemistry.

B+ High-Yield Biochemistry $24.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, 128 pages,

ISBN 0781743141

A concise and crammable text in outline format with good clinical

correlations at the end of each chapter. Features many diagrams and

tables. Good as a study supplement.


B High-Yield Cell and Molecular Biology $24.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999, 128 pages,

ISBN 0683303597

Cellular and molecular biology presented in an outline format, with

good diagrams and clinical correlations. Brief but complete. Includes

descriptions of laboratory techniques and genetic disorders. No questions

or vignettes.

B Clinical Biochemistry $36.95 Review


Churchill Livingstone, 1999, 176 pages, ISBN 0443061831

Biochemistry and physiology presented in a clinical framework. Visually

pleasing. Focuses on adult medicine; skimpy on inherited disorders,

genetics, and molecular biochemistry. Case studies are included

throughout, but no standard question-and-answer exercises are given.

May be more wards than boards oriented.

B Clinical Biochemistry Made Ridiculously Simple $22.95 Review


MedMaster, 1999, 95 pages, ISBN 0940780305

A conceptual approach toward clinical biochemistry, presented with

humor. The casual style does not appeal to all students. Mnemonics

tend to be somewhat complicated. Offers a good overview and integration

of all metabolic pathways. Includes a 23-page clinical review

that is very high yield and crammable. Also contains a unique foldout

“road map” of metabolism. For students with a firm biochemistry


B PreTest Biochemistry & Genetics $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 384 pages, ISBN 0071437479

Difficult questions with detailed, referenced explanations. Best for the

motivated student who uses it along with a review book. Contains

some questions on biochemical disorders and metabolism but no clinical

vignettes. Features six pages of high-yield facts focusing on genetically

based diseases.



B STARS Biochemistry Review $27.50 Review/600 q


W. B. Saunders, 1996, 242 pages, ISBN 0721651755

A content review in dense outline format with small type. Chapters

are short and include only relevant pathways. Good for students who

prefer an outline-based review. Parallels the core text by the same authors.

A comprehensive exam at the end of the book has some questions

with a clinical slant.

B Metabolism at a Glance $34.95 Review


Blackwell Science, 2004, 128 pages, ISBN 1405107162

A concise and impressive review of the biochemical pathways involved

in metabolism. Intricate figures depict the interplay between

the various reactions. Beyond the scope of the USMLE, but a unique

resource nonetheless.

B Case Files: Biochemistry $29.95 Review


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 414 pages, ISBN 0071437819

A text that is divided into clinical cases followed by clinical correlations,

a discussion, and take-home pearls, presented in a format similar

to others in the Case Files series. A few questions accompany each

case. The black-and-white figures are sometimes too small to read, but

the clinical correlations make biochemistry concepts easier to remember.

Too lengthy for rapid review; best for students who enjoys problem-

based learning.



A Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple $25.95 Review


MedMaster, 2003, 272 pages, ISBN 0940780496

A very good chart-based review of microbiology that includes clever

and humorous mnemonics. The best of this series. The text is easy to

read, and an excellent antibiotic review helps for pharmacology as

well. The style of the series does not appeal to everyone. Requires a

supplemental source for immunology. Excellent if you have limited

time or are “burning out.”

A Rapid Review: Microbiology and Immunology $32.95 Review/100 q


Mosby, 2002, 395 pages, ISBN 0323008402

Similar to other books in the Rapid Review series. Contains a significant

number of excellent tables and figures. Two 50-question tests

with extensive explanations complement the topics covered in the review.

The CD-ROM contains additional questions, but their format is

poor. Overall, one of the best in the Rapid Review series.

A- Basic Immunology $54.95 Review


Elsevier, 2004, 322 pages, ISBN 1416024034

A text that includes colorful diagrams, pictures, and tables that students

will find useful for quick review. Also offers abundant text as

well as a lengthy glossary for those who wish to delve into the topic

further for the boards. Features online access to the same text.

A- Underground Clinical Vignettes: Microbiology Vols. I & II $17.95 ea. Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Microbiology, Vol. I: 2005, 112 pages, ISBN 1495194129

Microbiology, Vol. II: 2005, 134 pages, ISBN 1405104139

Concise clinical cases illustrating frequently tested diseases in microbiology

and immunology (approximately 100 cases per volume). Cardinal

signs, symptoms, and buzzwords are highlighted. Use as a supplement

to other sources of review.



A- Microcards $28.98 Flash cards


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 380 pages,

ISBN 0781722004

A very useful resource for students who like to use flash cards for review.

Some cards include excellent flow charts of important classes of

bacteria or viruses. Most of the other cards include the bacterium or

virus, clinical presentation, pathobiology, diagnosis, treatment, and

important quick facts.

A- High-Yield Immunology $19.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999, 68 pages, ISBN 0683306146

Presented in a format typical of the High-Yield series. Accurately covers

high-yield details within the topic in proportion to boards coverage

of immunology. Good for quick review. Some illustrations and diagrams

could be improved, and some sections may not be detailed


A- Medical Microbiology and Immunology: Examination $39.95 Review/654 q

and Board Review


McGraw-Hill, 2002, 614 pages, ISBN 0071382178

Clear, concise writing with excellent diagrams and tables. Includes an

excellent immunology section. The “Summary of Medically Important

Organisms” is highly crammable. Requires time commitment.

Can be detailed and dense; best if started early with the course. Covers

all topics, including some that are low yield. Includes good practice

questions and a comprehensive exam, but questions have letter

answers only. Compare with Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology.

B+ Concise Medical Immunology $36.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 267 pages,

ISBN 078175741X

A concise text with useful diagrams, illustrations, and tables. Good for

students who need extra immunology review or wish to study the subject

thoroughly for the boards. End-of-chapter multiple-choice questions

help reinforce key concepts.


B+ Case Studies in Immunology: Clinical Companion $33.95 Review/100 q


Garland Science, 2001, 250 pages, ISBN 0815340508

Originally designed as a clinical companion to Janeway’s Immunobiology,

this text provides an excellent synopsis of the major disorders of

immunity in a clinical vignette format. Integrates basic and clinical

science. Excellent images, illustrations, questions, and discussion.

B+ How the Immune System Works $24.95 Review


Blackwell Science, 2002, 144 pages, ISBN 063204702X

A concise overview of immunology that attempts to simplify complicated

concepts. Includes a good general introduction, but best used as

a companion to other, more detailed resources. Weak in clinical immunology.

Limited student feedback.

B+ Case Files: Microbiology $29.95 Review


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 389 pages, ISBN 0071445749

Fifty clinical microbiology cases reviewed in an interactive learning

format. Each case is followed by a clinical correlation, a discussion

with boldfaced buzzwords, and questions. Cases are useful for boards

review, since key ideas can be readily associated with the appropriate

clinical scenario.

B+ Clinical Microbiology Review $36.95 Review


Wysteria, 2001, 152 pages, ISBN 0967783933

A concise yet comprehensive review in chart format with some clinical

correlations. Each page is devoted to a single organism with ample

space for adding notes during class. Contains no immunology. Spatial

organization, color coding, and bulleting of facts facilitate subject review.

A great cross-reference section groups organisms by general

characteristics. The new edition includes color plates of significant

microbes. Limited but positive student feedback. Compare with

Topf’s Microbiology Companion.



B+ Appleton & Lange Outline Review: Microbiology $29.95 Review

and Immunology


McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange, 2004, 200 pages,

ISBN 0071405666

A well-organized approach toward the microbiology section of the

boards, addressing all areas included in the exam. Lacks detailed

treatment of autoimmune disorders, but an excellent resource to use

in addition to class notes. A good resource for organization of the material.

Its sparse use of images could be a drawback.

B+ Appleton & Lange’s Review of Microbiology & Immunology $34.95 Test/995 q


McGraw-Hill, 2001, 288 pages, ISBN 0071362657

A large number of questions with detailed answers. Inadequate as a

primary source, but a good supplement for the motivated student.

Well referenced with effective diagrams, figures, and tables. Includes

a good immunology section but weak coverage of immune disorders.

B Immunology for the Boards and Wards $19.95 Review/19 q


Blackwell Science, 2001, 72 pages, ISBN 0632045744

Similar in style to other books in the Boards and Wards series. Not

specifically tailored to USMLE material, but includes many highyield

tables. Contains approximately 20 questions throughout the text.

No illustrations. Limited student feedback.

B Microbiology and Immunology for the Boards and Wards $24.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 233 pages,

ISBN 1405104686

An outline format that may be appealing to some students but overwhelming

for others. Includes some figures and tables for those who

do not favor the format. A microbiology and immunology review is

also included along with a comprehensive assessment.

B Blueprints Notes & Cases: Microbiology and Immunology $28.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004, 208 pages,

ISBN 1405103477

Fifty-eight succinct clinical cases covering boards-relevant microbiology

and immunology facts. Charts, tables, illustrations, and useful

“thumbnails” are included in the discussion section to facilitate rapid

synthesis of key concepts. Best used during microbiology coursework

so that it can be readily reviewed for the boards. For students proficient

in immunology.


B BRS Microbiology and Immunology $32.95 Review/500 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, 300 pages,

ISBN 0781727707

A concise outline format with good questions and illustrations. The

immunology section is especially useful. For the motivated student.

B Bugcards: The Complete Microbiology Review $26.50 Flash cards

for Class, the Boards, and the Wards


BL Publishing, 1998, 154 pages, ISBN 0967165504

High-quality flash cards (similar to “Pharm Cards”) designed for rapid

class and USMLE microbiology review. Cards cover all medically relevant

bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites and include important

buzzwords, mnemonics, and clinical vignettes to aid in recall. Unique

“disease process cards” summarize all organisms for a particular disease

(e.g., UTI, pneumonia). Useful for a quick review of facts, but

not recommended as a comprehensive primary review source.

B Instant Notes in Immunology $31.95 Review/125 q


Garland Science, 2004, 322 pages, ISBN 1859960391

A comprehensive review of immunology with effective figures

throughout. Well organized, but too detailed for boards review. Best

used with the course. Questions are not in current USMLE format

and do not include explanations. High-yield tables of principal cytokines

and selected molecules are included. Limited student feedback.

B Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology $35.95 Review/Few q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, 528 pages,

ISBN 0397515685

A comprehensive, highly illustrated review of microbiology similar in

style to Champe’s Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry. Includes

a 50-page color section with more than 150 clinical and laboratory

photographs. Compare with Levinson’s Medical Microbiology

and Immunology.

B BRS Micro Flash Cards $27.95 Flash cards


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, 250 pages,

ISBN 078174427X

A series of flash cards featuring questions with answers on the reverse

side. Useful for students who enjoy an active style of review.



B STARS Microbiology $32.00 Review


Elsevier, 1998, 513 pages, ISBN 0721646417

Presents pathogens in a consistent outline format, from pathogenicity

to treatment. Features numerous multicolor tables and illustrations.

No questions. Requires time commitment. Consider as a course supplement.

B- Microbiology for the Boards and Wards $18.95 Review/22 q


Blackwell Science, 2001, 163 pages, ISBN 0632045760

A concise review of major and exotic pathogens in a useful outline

format. Easy to read. Limited student feedback.

B- Platinum Vignettes Series: Microbiology $24.95 Review


Elsevier, 2003, 114 pages, ISBN 1560535741

Fifty clinical case scenarios presented in a unique format, with the

case question appearing on the front of the page and the answer

printed on the back. May be useful for students who wish to self-quiz.

Expensive for the amount of material.

B- PreTest Microbiology $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 310 pages, ISBN 0071437487

Mixed-quality questions with detailed, sometimes verbose explanations.

Useful for additional question-based review in bacteriology and

virology, but not high yield. Includes three pages of high-yield facts.

B- Flash Micro $27.95 Flash cards


Stanford Ink, 1999, 131 pages, ISBN 0967231809

Concise flash cards designed for boards review. Include 190

pathogens but no immunology. Color coded. Compare with Orlando’s

Medical Micro-Cards. Mixed student feedback.



A BRS Pathology $32.95 Review/500 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001, 488 pages,

ISBN 0683302655

An excellent, concise review with appropriate content emphasis. Features

outline-format chapters with boldfacing of key facts. Includes

good questions with explanations at the end of each chapter and a

comprehensive exam at the end of the book. Offers well-organized tables

and diagrams as well as some good black-and-white photographs

representative of classic pathology that can be correlated with color

photographs from an atlas. Also contains a chapter on laboratory testing

and “key associations” with each disease. Short on clinical details

for vignette questions. Worth the time investment. Most effective if

started early and then reviewed during study periods.

A- Pathophysiology for the Boards and Wards-USMLE Step 1 $32.95 Review/75 q


Blackwell Science, 2003, 352 pages, ISBN 1405103426

A system-based outline with a focus on pathology. Well organized

with glossy color plates of relevant pathology and excellent, concise

tables. The appendix includes a helpful overview of neurology, immunology,

“zebras,” syndromes, and pearls.

A- Lange Flash Cards: Pathology $29.95 Flash cards


McGraw-Hill, 2004, 296 pages, ISBN 0071436901

Pathology cards organized with information on one disease per card.

Includes pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, treatment, and

clinical vignette. Most effective when used at the beginning of the

second year through Step 1 preparation. A useful resource with which

to organize the breadth of pathology topics covered on the USMLE.

Limited student feedback.

A- Underground Clinical Vignettes: Pathophysiology, $17.95 each Review

Vols. I, II, & III


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Pathophysiology, Vol. I: 2005, 116 pages, ISBN 1405104147

Pathophysiology, Vol. II: 2005, 114 pages, ISBN 1405104155

Pathophysiology, Vol. III: 2005, 115 pages, ISBN 1405104163

Concise clinical cases illustrating approximately 100 frequently tested

pathology and physiology cases in each book. Cardinal signs, symptoms,

and buzzwords are highlighted. Use as a supplement to other

sources of review.



A- Pathology Recall $32.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 624 pages,

ISBN 0781734061

A quiz-based text featuring thousands of brief questions. Not in

USMLE format. Similar to others in the Recall series. Beyond the

scope of Step 1, but an entertaining break from other reviews.

B+ PreTest Pathology $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 577 pages, ISBN 0071436774

Picky, difficult questions with detailed, complete answers. Questions

are often obscure or esoteric. Features high-quality black-and-white

photographs but no color illustrations. Can be used as a supplement

to other review books. For the motivated student. Thirty-five pages of

high-yield facts are useful for concept summaries.

B+ BrainChip for Pathology $19.95 Review


Blackwell Science, 2002, 144 pages, ISBN 0632046392

More than 160 clinical cases and color photographs. Excellent pictures

and relevant text.

B+ Rapid Review: Pathology $32.95 Review/100 q


Mosby, 2004, 463 pages, ISBN 0323023932

Similar to other books in the Rapid Review series. Addresses key concepts

in pathology in a bulleted outline format with many tables and

figures. High-yield marginal notes are useful, but the text can appear

cluttered at times. The CD-ROM contains additional questions, but

they are not in boards format. Limited student feedback.

B+ Pathophysiology of Disease: Introduction $44.95 Review/Few q

to Clinical Medicine


McGraw-Hill, 2000, 662 pages, ISBN 0838581609

An interdisciplinary course text useful for understanding the pathophysiology

of clinical symptoms. Effectively integrates the basic sciences

with mechanisms of disease. Features great graphs, diagrams,

and tables. Most helpful if used during coursework owing to its

length. Few non-boards-style questions. The text’s clinical emphasis

nicely complements BRS Pathology.


B+ PreTest Pathophysiology $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 272 pages, ISBN 0071434925

Includes 500 questions and answers with detailed explanations. Questions

may be more difficult than those on the boards. Features a brief

section of high-yield topics.

B+ Pocket Companion to Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease $34.95 Review


W. B. Saunders, 1999, 800 pages, ISBN 0721678599

Good for reviewing associations between keywords and specific diseases.

Highly condensed, complete, and easy to understand. Explains

most important diseases and pathologic processes. No photographs or

illustrations. Useful as a quick reference.

B Platinum Vignettes Series Pathology I & II $24.95 each Review


Elsevier, 2003, 118 pages, ISBN 1560535695

104 pages, ISBN 1560535725

A text consisting of vignettes that are very similar in style to those of

the Underground Clinical Vignette series. However, each volume contains

50 cases for a total of 100, whereas the UCVs offer 300 cases

split over three volumes. Overall, offers less bang for the buck than

the UCVs.

B Appleton & Lange’s Review of General Pathology $34.95 Test/1300 q


McGraw-Hill, 2003, 352 pages, ISBN 0071389954

Short text sections followed by numerous questions with answers.

Some useful high-yield tables are included at the beginning of each

section. Features good photomicrographs. Covers both general and organ-

based pathology. Can be used as a supplement to more detailed

texts. A good review when time is short.

B Colour Atlas of Anatomical Pathology $65.95 Review


Churchill Livingstone, 2004, 300 pages, ISBN 0443073600

An impressive photographic atlas of gross pathology. Offers easy-toread,

clinically relevant content.



B Lange Smart Charts $24.95 Review


McGraw-Hill, 2001, 356 pages, ISBN 0838581757

A flip chart of tables with information grouped together for ease of recall.

Organized by body system with mnemonics. Best used as a summary

reference for fast review.

B Robbins Review of Pathology $39.95 Review/1100 q


Elsevier, 2005, 419 pages, ISBN 0721601944

A question book of pathology with answer explanations. Questions are

almost all clinically based and are accompanied by a number of highquality

histologic and gross images as well as by references to the Robbins

Pathologic Basis of Disease and Basic Pathology textbooks. Questions

are more difficult and detailed than those on the actual exam.

Answer explanations are brief but well written. Good to use as a companion

to pathology coursework.

B Pathophysiology of Heart Disease $34.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 448 pages,

ISBN 0781740274

A collaborative project by medical students and faculty at Harvard.

Well organized, easy to read, and concise; offers comprehensive coverage

of cardiovascular pathophysiology from the medical student’s

perspective. Serves as an excellent bridge between the basic and clinical

sciences. Very good for review of this subject, but does not cover

other areas of pathology tested on the boards. May be too detailed for

boards review.

B Pathcards $32.95 Flash cards


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, 520 cards,

ISBN 0781743990

Presents comprehensive and detailed information in flash-card format

rather than attempting to condense boards-relevant material into just

one fact per disease state. Appropriate to the level of depth with which

pathology is tested on the USMLE, but cards look cramped and are

difficult to flip through for rapid review.


B PreTest Physical Diagnosis $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2003, 382 pages, ISBN 0071411402

A collection of clinical vignettes organized by body system, presented

in a style similar to that of other books in the PreTest series. May be

beyond the scope of Step 1, but could also be used in the clinical

years of medical school. Limited student feedback.

B Renal Pathophysiology: The Essentials $28.00 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994, 351 pages,

ISBN 0683073540

An excellent review with explanations of various disease processes of

the kidney. Includes review questions within the text that are intended

for comprehension and are not written in boards style. Would serve as

a good reference during boards review.

B Color Atlas of Pathophysiology $39.00 Review


Thieme, 2000, 380 pages, ISBN 0865778663

A text containing more than 180 high-quality illustrations demonstrating

disturbed physiologic processes that lead to dysfunction. Limited

student feedback.

B BRS Pathology Flash Cards $29.95 Flash cards


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 250 cards,

ISBN 0781737109

A series of 250 pathology flash cards categorized by organ system. Effective

when used with the BRS Pathology textbook, but not comprehensive

enough when used alone. Most cards have only one highyield


B- Rypins’ Intensive Reviews: Pathology $21.95 Review/220 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998, 432 pages,

ISBN 0397515553

Typical of this series. Includes a comprehensive exam with answers

and explanations. Illustrated with simple diagrams; no photos are included.



B- Review Questions for Human Pathology $19.95 Test/1300 q


Parthenon, 1999, 322 pages, ISBN 1850705992

Features more than 1300 questions with answers and discussions.

Many questions are in outdated USMLE format. Step 1-level questions

are interspersed with questions at the level of Step 2 and Step 3.

A good value for the price.

B- Blueprints Notes & Cases Pathophysiology: $28.95 each Review

Cardiovascular, Endocrine, and Reproduction


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004, 187 pages,

ISBN 1405103507

Blueprints Notes & Cases Pathophysiology: Pulmonary,

Gastrointestinal, and Rheumatology


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004, 172 pages,

ISBN 1405103515

Blueprints Notes & Cases Pathophysiology: Renal,

Hematology, and Oncology


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004, 192 pages,

ISBN 1405103523

These books follow the format of the larger Blueprints series, in which

each case takes the form of a discussion followed by key points and a

series of questions. The pathophysiology volumes would serve a good

companion to organ-based teaching modules, but the material is neither

comprehensive enough nor sufficiently concise to be high yield

for intensive boards preparation.



A- Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology $44.95 Review/125 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006, 552 pages,

ISBN 0781741181

An outline format with practice questions and many excellent illustrations

and tables. Cross-referenced to other books in the Lippincott’s Illustrated

Reviews series. Good for the “big picture,” and takes an effective

pathophysiologic approach. Highly detailed, so use with

coursework and review for the USMLE. For the motivated student.

A- Katzung and Trevor’s Pharmacology: Examination $39.95 Review/1000 q

and Board Review


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 645 pages, ISBN 0071422900

A well-organized text in narrative format with concise explanations.

Features good charts and tables. Good for drug interactions and toxicities.

Offers two practice exams with questions and detailed answers.

Includes some low-yield/obscure drugs. The crammable list of “top

boards drugs” is especially high yield. Compare closely with Lippincott’s

Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology.

B+ Pharmacology for the Boards and Wards $25.95 Review/150 q


Blackwell Science, 2003, 220 pages, ISBN 1405103248

Like other books in the Boards and Wards series, the pharmacology

volume is presented primarily in tabular format with bulleted key

points. Review questions are in USMLE style. At times can be too


B+ Pharm Cards: A Review for Medical Students $32.95 Flash cards


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002, 228 pages,

ISBN 0781734010

The updated edition highlights important features of major drugs and

drug classes. Good for class review; also offers a quick, focused review

for the USMLE. Lacks pharmacokinetics, but features good charts

and diagrams. Well liked by students who enjoy flash card-based review.

Bulky to carry around.



B+ BRS Pharmacology Flash Cards $27.95 Flash cards


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004, 508 pages,

ISBN 0781747961

Cards focus on facilitating the recall of drugs used for particular diseases

rather than describing these drugs in detail. May be useful for

those who find Pharm Cards overwhelming. Considered by many to

be an excellent resource for quick review before the boards.

B+ Lange Smart Charts: Pharmacology $34.95 Review


McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange, 2003, 386 pages,

ISBN 0071388788

Pharmacology concepts organized into a tabular format. Most useful

when used as a secondary source for organization when reviewing material.

Limited student feedback.

B+ Pharm Recall $32.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999, 512 pages,

ISBN 068330285X

An approach toward pharmacology review presented in a questionand-

answer “recall” format. Includes a high-yield drug summary.

Good for cramming and memorization.

B Underground Clinical Vignettes: Pharmacology $17.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 129 pages,

ISBN 1405104171

Concise clinical cases illustrating approximately 100 frequently tested

pharmacology concepts. Cardinal signs, symptoms, and buzzwords

are highlighted. The clinical vignette style is less effective for pharmacology.

Use as a supplement to other sources of review.

B Clinical Pharmacology Made Ridiculously Simple $20.95 Review


MedMaster, 2001, 164 pages, ISBN 094078050X

Includes general principles and many drug summary charts. Particularly

strong in cardiovascular drugs and antimicrobials; incomplete in

other areas. Consists primarily of tables; lacks the humorous illustrations

and mnemonics typical of this series. Well organized, but occasionally

too detailed. Effective as a chart-based review book but not as

a sole study source. Must be supplemented with a more detailed text.


B Rapid Review: Pharmacology $31.95 Review/100 q


Elsevier, 2005, 316 pages, ISBN 0323008380

Similar to other books in the series. Figures are sparse but are high

yield when included. Provides limited detail on mechanisms of action.

Contains two 50-question tests with additional questions on a

CD-ROM. Compare with High-Yield Pharmacology. Limited student


B Instant Pharmacology $39.99 Review/130 q


John Wiley & Sons, 1999, 349 pages, ISBN 0471976393

A text divided into several parts, the first addressing basic mechanisms

found in pharmacology. Drugs encountered in this section are summarized

in the “Dictionary of Drugs.” Concludes with a comprehensive

exam. Includes answers but no explanations.

B PreTest Pharmacology $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 379 pages, ISBN 007143688X

A text that represents a significant improvement over previous editions

of PreTest Pharmacology. A good resource to use after other sources of

questions have been exhausted.

B Case Files: Pharmacology $29.95 Review


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 420 pages, ISBN 0071445730

A clinical case review book consisting of 52 cases along with useful tables.

The text may appeal to students who prefer problem-based learning,

but some may find it difficult to review pharmacology using a

clinical vignette format.

B- High-Yield Pharmacology $24.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, 144 pages,

ISBN 0781745128

A pharmacology review presented in an easy-to-follow outline format.

Contains no questions or index. Offers a good summary. Best used

with a more extensive text.



B- Appleton & Lange’s Review of Pharmacology $34.95 700+ q


McGraw-Hill, 2004, 156 pages, ISBN 0071377433

A text that contains ample, up-to-date questions along with a 50-question

practice test. Best for students who need additional pharmacology

questions for boards review. Answers have no accompanying text or

explanations, which may pose a challenge for those who require more

detailed information.



A BRS Physiology $32.95 Review/400 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, 352 pages,

ISBN 0781739195

A clear, concise review of physiology that is both comprehensive and

efficient, making for fast, easy reading. Includes great charts and tables.

Good practice questions are given along with explanations and a

clinically oriented final exam. An excellent review book, but may not

be enough for in-depth coursework. Respiratory and acid-base sections

are comparatively weak.

A Physiology $44.95 Review


Elsevier, 2002, 451 pages, ISBN 1416023275

Comprehensive coverage of concepts outlined in BRS Physiology. Offers

excellent diagrams and charts. Each systems-based chapter includes

a detailed summary of objectives and a boards-relevant clinical

case. The new edition also includes online interactive extras. Requires

time commitment.

A- BRS Physiology Cases and Problems $34.95 Review/Many q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006, 384 pages,

ISBN 078176078X

Roughly 50 cases in vignette format with several questions per case.

Includes detailed answers with explanations. For the motivated student.

A- USMLE Road Map: Physiology $19.95 Review/50 q


McGraw-Hill, 2003, 216 pages, ISBN 0071400761

A text in outline format incorporating high-yield illustrations. Provides

a concise approach to physiology. Clinical correlations are referenced

to the text. Questions build on basic concepts and include detailed

explanations. Limited student feedback.



B+ High-Yield Acid Base $18.95 Review


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998, 100 pages,

ISBN 0683303937

A concise and well-written description of acid-base disorders. Includes

chapters discussing differential diagnoses and 12 clinical cases. Introduces

a multistep approach to the material. A bookmark with useful

factoids is included with the text. No index or questions.

B+ Appleton & Lange’s Review of Physiology $34.95 Test/700 q


McGraw-Hill, 2004, 278 pages, ISBN 0071377263

Boards-style questions divided into subcategories under physiology.

Good if subject-specific questions are desired, but may be too detailed

for many students. Some diagrams are used to explain answers. A

good way for students to test their knowledge after coursework.

B+ Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials $31.00 Review/100 q


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999, 192 pages,

ISBN 0683307347

Comprehensive coverage of respiratory physiology. Clearly organized

with useful charts and diagrams. The new edition includes appendices

with more than 100 questions and answers with explanations.

Best used as a course supplement. Limited student feedback.

B Color Atlas of Physiology $35.00 Review


Thieme, 2003, 448 pages, ISBN 1588900614

A compact text with more than 150 colorful but complicated diagrams

on the right and dense explanatory text on the left. Suffers from

some translation problems. Overall, a unique, highly visual approach

that is worthy of consideration. Useful as an adjunct to other review


B Clinical Physiology Made Ridiculously Simple $19.95 Review


MedMaster, 2001, 160 pages, ISBN 0940780216

Easy reading with many amusing associations. The style does not work

for everyone. Not as well illustrated as the rest of the series. Use as a

supplement to other review books.


B Lange Smart Charts: Physiology $34.95 Review


McGraw-Hill, 2004, 529 pages, ISBN 0071395075

Major topics in physiology organized into chart form according to

body system. Includes mnemonics and definitions of key terms, but

lacks detail at times. Suitable as an adjunct to another source. Limited

student feedback.

B Hematology at a Glance $29.95 Review


Blackwell Science, 2000, 128 pages, ISBN 0632047933

Covers common hematologic issues. Includes color illustrations. Presented

in a logical sequence that is easy to read. Good for class use as


B Acid-Base, Fluids, and Electrolytes Made Ridiculously Simple $18.95 Review


MedMaster, 2002, 156 pages, ISBN 0960780313

Covers major electrolyte disturbances and fluid management issues

with which medical students should be familiar. A great reference for

the internal medicine clerkship. Provides information beyond the

scope of the USMLE exam, but remains a useful companion for understanding

physiology, kidney function, and fluids. Includes scattered

diagrams and questions at the end of each chapter that test comprehension

more than facts. Some questions involve calculations.

B PreTest Physiology $24.95 Test/500 q


McGraw-Hill, 2005, 480 pages, ISBN 0071436537

Questions with detailed, well-written explanations. The newest edition

offers more USMLE-oriented questions as well as more focused

explanations. One of the best of the PreTest series. May be useful for

the motivated student following extensive review of other sources. Includes

32 pages of high-yield facts.

B- Review Questions for Physiology $24.95 Test/700 q


CRC Press-Parthenon, 1998, 142 pages, ISBN 1850706018

Few clinical vignette-type questions. Answers are on the same page as

the questions, making it easy to move through questions and check

answers at the same time.

Kaplan Medical

Northwestern Medical


Postgraduate Medical

Review Education


The Princeton Review

Youel’s Prep, Inc.



Review Courses



Commercial preparation courses can be helpful for some students, but such courses are expensive and

require significant time commitment. They are usually an effective tool for students who feel overwhelmed

by the volume of material they must review in preparation for the boards. Note, too, that the

multiweek review courses may be quite intense and may thus leave limited time for independent study.

Also note that while some commercial courses are designed for first-time test takers, others focus on students

who are repeating the examination. Still other courses focus on IMGs who want to take all three

Steps in a limited amount of time. Finally, student experience and satisfaction with review courses are

highly variable, and course content and structure can evolve rapidly. We thus suggest that you discuss options

with recent graduates of review courses you are considering. Some student opinions can be found

in discussion groups on the World Wide Web.

Kaplan Medical

Kaplan Medical offers a wide range of options for USMLE preparation, including live lectures, centerbased

study, and online products. All of its courses and products focus on providing the most examrelevant

information available.

Live Lectures. Kaplan’s IntensePrepTM offers a highly structured, interactive live review led by expert faculty.

Designed for medical students with little time to prepare, it includes approximately 15 days of live

lectures during which faculty members cover the material students need to know to master the Step 1

exam. IntensePrep students also receive six months of access to Kaplan’s online lectures, which offers

more than 80 hours of high-yield, audio-streamed lectures. This course features seven volumes of lecture

notes and a question book that includes 850 practice questions.

Kaplan also offers live-lecture courses ranging from 6 to 14 weeks with all-inclusive options to stay and

study in high-end hotel accommodations, all of which are aimed at students who are repeating the exam

as well as students and physicians who seek more time to prepare.

Center Study. CenterPrep 30 Visits, Kaplan’s center-based lecture course, is designed for medical students

seeking flexibility. It is offered at more than 120 Kaplan Centers across the United States and includes

30 visits to one Kaplan Center, where students are given access to approximately 175 hours of

video lecture review. This course also includes seven volumes of lecture notes; a question book that includes

850 practice questions; and a full-length simulated exam with a complete performance analysis

and detailed explanations. For those who would like more access to study resources, Kaplan offers CenterPrep,

which includes a personalized study plan and three months of access to all Kaplan Centers.

Online Resources. Kaplan Medical provides online content and question-based review. WebPrep offers

80 hours of audio-streamed lectures, seven volumes of lecture notes, a full online Step 1 simulated exam,

and access to its popular online question bank, Qbank, which contains over 2100 USMLE-style practice

questions with detailed explanations. WebPrep is designed to be the most flexible content and questionbased

review available.

Kaplan Medical’s online question review products have been updated to include the new USMLE-style

functionality (the ability to highlight, annotate, and cross out). These resources are updated and revised

each month to include new questions.

Kaplan’s popular Qbank allows students to customize practice tests by discipline and organ system,

receive instant on-screen feedback, and track their cumulative performance. Another Step 1 resource is

Kaplan’s Integrated Vignettes Qbank, an online clinical case question bank that allows users to practice


answering case-based, USMLE-style vignettes that are organized by symptom. Each vignette contains

multidisciplinary questions covering different ways the underlying basic science concepts could be


Kaplan’s most comprehensive question practice option is Qreview, which contains more than 3500 questions

and provides six months of simultaneous access to both Step 1 Qbank and IV Qbank. Qreview provides

students with collective reporting of their results across both Qbanks and also includes an online

simulated exam for further USMLE practice. Qbank demos are available at www.kaplanmedical.com.

More information on all of Kaplan’s review options can be obtained at (800) 533-8850 or by visiting


Northwestern Medical Review

Northwestern Medical Review offers live-lecture review courses for both the COMLEX Level I and

USMLE Step 1 examinations. Three courses (Plans) are available for each exam: NBI 100, a three-day

course; NBI 200, a five-day course; and NBI 300, a 10- or 15-day course. All courses are in live-lecture

format, and most are taught by the authors of the Northwestern Review Books. In addition to organized

lecture notes and books for each subject, courses include Web-based CBT test-bank access and a large

pool of practice questions and simulated exams. All plans are available in a customized, onsite format for

groups of second-year students from individual U.S. medical schools. Additionally, public sites are frequently

offered in East Lansing and Ann Arbor, Michigan; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; St. Louis, Missouri;

San Antonio, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Long Island, New York. International sites may

also be offered at the request of groups of students and international educational organizations.

Tuition for the USMLE Step 1 NBI 100 is $310; NBI 200 is $440; and NBI 300 ranges from $890 to

$1030. Tuition is based on group size, program duration, and early-enrollment discounts. Home-study

materials, CBT question-bank access, and DVD materials are also available for purchase independent of

the live-lecture plans. Northwestern offers a retake option as well as a liberal cancellation policy.

For more information, contact:

Northwestern Medical Review

P.O. Box 22174

Lansing, MI 48909-2174

Phone: (866) MedPass

Fax: (517) 347-7005

E-mail: registrar@northwesternmedicalreview.com

URL: www.northwesternmedicalreview.com

Postgraduate Medical Review Education (PMRE)

Established in 1976, PMRE offers complete home-study courses for the USMLE Step 1 in the form of

audio cassettes and books. Home Study Package A offers 67 hours of live classes on audiotapes and a

transcript book and a compilation of handout notes from the professors that you will hear on the cassettes

for $998. Package E features 9000 questions and answers on 20 hours of audiotape for $250. PMRE uses

professors who write questions for USMLE exams in conjunction with professionally recorded materials.

PMRE is recognized by the AMA and The Federation Licensing Medical Examiners, Ft. Worth, Texas.

Books are being sold at the UCLA medical book store, Barnes and Noble, and Magill Medical University

book store, Montreal, Canada.



For more information, contact:


1909 Taylor Street, Suite 305

Hollywood, Florida 33020

Phone: (800) ECFMG-30 or (954) 926-3333

Fax: (954) 921-2222

E-mail: sales@pmre.com, usmlepmre@aol.com

URL: www.PMRE.com

The Princeton Review

The Princeton Review offers three flexible preparation options for the USMLE Step 1: the USMLE Online

Course, the USMLE Classroom Course, and the USMLE Online Workout. In selected cities, The

Princeton Review also offers a more intensive preparation course for IMGs.

USMLE Online Course. The USMLE Online Course offers comprehensive, self-paced preparation

that includes the following:

¦ Seventy-five hours of online review, including lessons, vignettes, and drills

¦ Three full-length diagnostic tests with detailed score reports

¦ Seven comprehensive review manuals consisting of more than 1500 pages

¦ Seven minitests to gauge students’ knowledge in each subject

¦ Twenty-four-hour e-mail support from Princeton Review Online instructors

¦ Three months of online access

USMLE Online Workout. The USMLE Online Workout offers the following:

¦ Two thousand USMLE-style questions presented in the CBT format

¦ Three full-length diagnostic exams

¦ Seven minitests covering Anatomy, Behavioral Science, Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology,

Pathology, Pharmacology, and Physiology

¦ More than 40 subject-specific drills

¦ A high-yield slide review for Anatomy and Pathology

¦ Complete explanations of all questions and answers

¦ Three months of access

More information can be found on The Princeton Review’s Web site at www.princetonreview.com.

Youel’s Prep, Inc.

Youel’s Prep, Inc., has specialized in medical board preparation for 27 years. The company provides

DVDs and videotapes (PowerPrepTM, Quick StartTM: the CD, Comprehensive PrepTM and Comprehensive

PlusTM), books (FastTrac PrepTM and 7 Steps to Board Success), live lectures (Youel’s LivePrepTM),

and tutorials for small groups as well as for individuals (TutorialPrepTM). All DVDs, videotapes, audiotapes,

live lectures, and tutorials are correlated with a three-book set of Prep Notes© consisting of two

textbooks, Youel’s Jewels I© and Youel’s Jewels II© (984 pages); and Case Studies, a question-and-answer

book (1854 questions, answers, and explanations).


All Youel’s Prep courses are taught and written by physicians, reflecting the clinical slant of the boards.

All programs are systems based. In addition, all programs are updated continuously. Accordingly, books

are not printed until the order is received.

Delivery in the United States is usually within one week. Optional express delivery is also available.

Youel’s Prep Home Study ProgramTM–consisting of Youel’s WebPrep, VideoPrep, AudioPrep, and

BookPrep–allows students to own their materials and to use them for repetitive study in the convenience

of their homes. Purchasers of any of the Youel’s Prep programs are enrolled as members of the

Youel’s Prep Family of StudentsTM, which affords them access to free telephone tutoring by Dr. Youel.

Youel’s Prep live lectures are held at select medical schools at the invitation of the school and students.

Programs are customized to meet individual and school needs and can be custom-designed for 16 to 56

hours. First-year students are urged to call early to arrange live-lecture programs at their schools for next


For more information, contact:

Youel’s Prep, Inc.

P.O. Box 4605

West Palm Beach, FL 33402

Phone: (800) 645-3985

Fax: (561) 366-8628

E-mail: info@youelsprep.com





Appleton & Lange

(see McGraw-Hill)

ASM Press

P.O. Box 605

Herndon, VA 20172

(800) 546-2416

Fax: (703) 661-1501



BL Publishing

3614 North Raven Wash Drive

Tucson, Arizona 85745

(520) 743-1711


Biotest Publishing Company, Inc.

5850 Thille Street, Suite 103

Ventura, CA 93003



Blackwell Publishing


P.O. Box 20

Williston, VT 05495-9957

(800) 216-2522

Fax: (802) 864-7626


Churchill Livingstone

(see Elsevier Science)

Elsevier Science

Order Fulfillment

11830 Westline Industrial Drive

St. Louis, MO 63146

(800) 545-2522


Exam Master

500 Ethel Court

Middletown, DE 19709-9410

(888) 811-3926

Fax: (302) 378-1153



Garland Science Publishing

4133 Whitney Avenue

Hamden, CT 06518-1432

(888) 891-0687

Fax: (203) 230-1186



Gold Standard Board Prep

2619 West Loughlin Drive

Chandler, AZ 85224

(480) 699-0152

Fax: (740) 592-4045


Icon Learning Systems

295 North Street

Teterboro, NJ 07608

(800) 631-1181

Fax: (267) 685-2954



John Wiley & Sons

10475 Crosspoint Blvd.

Indianapolis, IN 46256

(877) 762-2974

Fax: (800) 597-3299



Kaplan, Inc.

888 7th Avenue

New York, NY 10106

(212) 492-5800


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

P.O. Box 1600

Hagerstown, MD 21740

(800) 777-2295

Fax: (301) 223-2400



Maval Publishing, Inc.

567 Harrison Street

Denver, CO 80206

(303) 338-8725

Fax: (303) 745-6215




1127 High Ridge Road, Suite 332

Stamford, CT 06905

(203) 406-4298

Fax: (203) 323-9036



MedMaster, Inc.

P.O. Box 640028

Miami FL 33312

(800) 335-3480

Fax: (954) 962-4508



McGraw-Hill Companies

Order Services

P.O. Box 182604

Columbus, OH 43272-3031

(877) 833-5524

Fax: (614) 759-3749


Mosby-Year Book

(see Elsevier Science)

Parthenon Publishing/CRC Press

Taylor & Francis Group

2000 NW Corporate Blvd.

Boca Raton, FL 33431-9868

(800) 272-7737

Fax: (800) 374-3401



Princeton Review

2315 Broadway

New York, NY 10024

3614 (212) 874-8282

Fax: (212) 874-0775


Thieme New York

333 Seventh Avenue

New York, NY 10001

(800) 782-3488

Fax: (212) 947-1112



W. B. Saunders

(see Elsevier Science)

Wysteria Publishing

(888) 997-8300


Publisher Contacts


Abbreviations and Symbols


Abbreviation Meaning

1° primary

2° secondary

3° tertiary

AA amino acid

AAV adeno-associated virus

Ab antibody

ABP androgen-binding protein

Ac-CoA acetylcoenzyme A

ACD anemia of chronic disease

ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACh acetylcholine

AChE acetylcholinesterase

ACL anterior cruciate ligament

ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADA adenosine deaminase, Americans

with Disabilities Act

ADH antidiuretic hormone

ADHD attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADP adenosine diphosphate

AFP a-fetoprotein

Ag antigen

AICA anterior inferior cerebellar artery

AIDS acquired immunodeficiency


ALA aminolevulinic acid

ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia

ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALT alanine transaminase

AML acute myelocytic leukemia

AMP adenosine monophosphate

ANA antinuclear antibody

ANCA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

ANOVA analysis of variance

ANP atrial natriuretic peptide

ANS autonomic nervous system

AOA American Osteopathic Association

AP action potential

APC antigen-presenting cell

APRT adenine phosphoribosyltransferase

APSAC anistreplase

AR autosomal recessive

ARC Appalachian Regional Commission

Abbreviation Meaning

ARDS adult respiratory distress syndrome

Arg arginine

ASA acetylsalicylic acid

ASD atrial septal defect

ASO antistreptolysin O

Asp aspartic acid

AST aspartate transaminase

AT angiotensin

ATP adenosine triphosphate

ATPase adenosine triphosphatase

AV atrioventricular

AVM arteriovenous malformation

AZT azidothymidine

BAL British anti-Lewisite [dimercaprol]

BMI body-mass index

BMR basal metabolic rate

BP blood pressure

BPG bis-phosphoglycerate

BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia

BUN blood urea nitrogen

CAD coronary artery disease

cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate

C-ANCA cytoplasmic antineutrophil

cytoplasmic antibody

CBSSA Comprehensive Basic Science


CBT computer-based testing

CCK cholecystokinin

CCl4 carbon tetrachloride

CCS computer-based case simulation

CCT cortical collecting tubule

CD cluster of differentiation

CDP cytidine diphosphate

CE cholesterol ester

CEA carcinoembryonic antigen

CETP cholesterol-ester transfer protein

CF cystic fibrosis

CFU colony-forming unit

CFX circumflex [artery]

cGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate

ChAT choline acetyltransferase

CHF congestive heart failure


Abbreviation Meaning

CIN candidate identification number,

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

CK-MB creatine kinase, MB fraction

CL clearance

CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CM chylomicron

CML chronic myeloid leukemia

CMT Computerized Mastery Test

CMV cytomegalovirus

CN cranial nerve

CNS central nervous system

CO cardiac output

CoA coenzyme A

COGME Council on Graduate Medical


COMLEX Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical

Licensing Examination

COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase

COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary


COX cyclooxygenase

Cp plasma concentration

CPAP continuous positive airway pressure

CPK creatine phosphokinase

CRH corticotropin-releasing hormone

CSA Clinical Skills Assessment

CSF cerebrospinal fluid, colonystimulating


CT computed tomography

CVA cardiovascular accident,

costovertebral angle

Cx complication

Cys cysteine

d4T didehydrodeoxythymidine [stavudine]

DAF decay-accelerating factor

DAG diacylglycerol

dATP deoxyadenosine triphosphate

ddC dideoxycytidine

ddI didanosine

DES diethylstilbestrol

DHAP dihydroxyacetone phosphate

DHB dihydrobiopterin

DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone

DHF dihydrofolic acid

DHPG dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl guanine

DHS Department of Homeland Security

DHT dihydrotestosterone

DI diabetes insipidus

DIC disseminated intravascular


DIP distal interphalangeal [joint]

DIT diiodotyrosine

DKA diabetic ketoacidosis

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid

2,4-DNP 2,4-dinitrophenol

Abbreviation Meaning

DO doctor of osteopathy

DOPA dihydroxyphenylalanine


2,3-DPG 2,3-diphosphoglycerate

DPM doctor of podiatric medicine

DPPC dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine

DS double stranded

dsDNA double-stranded deoxyribonucleic


dsRNA double-stranded ribonucleic acid

dTMP thymidine-5′-phosphate

DTR deep tendon reflex

DTs delirium tremens

dUMP deoxyuridine monophosphate

DVT deep venous thrombosis

EBV Epstein-Barr virus

EC50 median effective concentration

ECF extracellular fluid

ECFMG Educational Commission for Foreign

Medical Graduates

ECG electrocardiogram

ECT electroconvulsive therapy

ECV effective circulating volume

ED50 median effective dose

EDTA ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid

EDV end-diastolic volume

EEG electroencephalogram

EF ejection fraction, elongation factor

ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EM electron micrograph, electron

microscopic, electron microscopy

EMB eosin-methylene blue

EOM extraocular muscle

epi epinephrine

EPO erythropoietin

EPS extrapyramidal system

ER endoplasmic reticulum

ERAS Electronic Residency Application


ERCP endoscopic retrograde


ERP effective refractory period

ERPF effective renal plasma flow

ERV expiratory reserve volume

ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ESV end-systolic volume

EtOH ethyl alcohol

FAD oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide

FADH2 reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide

FAP familial adenomatous polyposis

5f-dUMP 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate

FENa excreted fraction of filtered sodium

FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second

FF filtration fraction

FFA free fatty acid

FGF fibroblast growth factor



Abbreviation Meaning

FLEX Federation Licensing Examination

f-met formylmethionine

FMG foreign medical graduate

FMN flavin mononucleotide

FRC functional residual capacity

FSH follicle-stimulating hormone

FSMB Federation of State Medical Boards

FTA-ABS fluorescent treponemal antibody–


5-FU 5-fluorouracil

FVC forced vital capacity

G3P glucose-3-phosphate

G6P glucose-6-phosphate

G6PD glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase

GABA .-aminobutyric acid

GBM glomerular basement membrane

G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating


GFAP glial fibrillary acid protein

GFR glomerular filtration rate

GGT .-glutamyl transpeptidase

GH growth hormone

GI gastrointestinal

GIP gastric inhibitory peptide

GIST gastrointestinal stromal tumor

Glu glutamic acid

GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating


GMP guanosine monophosphate

GN glomerulonephritis

GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GPe globus pallidus externa

GPi globus pallidus interna

GRP gastrin-releasing peptide

GSH reduced glutathione

GSSG oxidized glutathione

GTP guanosine triphosphate

GU genitourinary

HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy

HAV hepatitis A virus

Hb hemoglobin

HBcAb hepatitis B core antibody

HBcAg hepatitis B core antigen

HBeAb hepatitis B early antibody

HBeAg hepatitis B early antigen

HBsAb hepatitis B surface antibody

HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen

HBV hepatitis B virus

hCG human chorionic gonadotropin

HCV hepatitis C virus

HDL high-density lipoprotein

HDV hepatitis D virus

HEV hepatitis E virus

HGPRTase hypoxanthine-guanine


Abbreviation Meaning

HHS [Department of] Health and Human


HHV human herpesvirus

5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

His histidine

HIV human immunodeficiency virus

HLA human leukocyte antigen

HMG-CoA hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A

HMP hexose monophosphate

HMWK high-molecular-weight kininogen

HNPCC hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal


hnRNA heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleic


HPA hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [axis]

HPSA Health Professional Shortage Area

HPV human papillomavirus

HR heart rate

HSV herpes simplex virus

HSV-1 herpes simplex virus 1

HSV-2 herpes simplex virus 2

5-HT 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)

HTLV human T-cell leukemia virus

HUS hemolytic-uremic syndrome

IBD inflammatory bowel disease

IC inspiratory capacity

ICA internal carotid artery

ICF intracellular fluid

ICP intracranial pressure

ID50 median infectious dose

IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

IDL intermediate-density lipoprotein

I/E inspiratory/expiratory [ratio]

IF immunofluorescence

IFN interferon

Ig immunoglobulin

IHSS idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic


IL interleukin

Ile isoleucine

IMA inferior mesenteric artery

IMED International Medical Education


IMG international medical graduate

IMP inosine monophosphate

IND Investigational New Drug

INH isonicotine hydrazine [isoniazid]

IP3 inositol triphosphate

IPV inactivated polio vaccine

IRV inspiratory reserve volume

ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

IV intravenous

IVC inferior vena cava

JG juxtaglomerular [cells]

JGA juxtaglomerular apparatus


Abbreviation Meaning

KSHV Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated


LA left atrial

LAD left anterior descending [artery]

LCA left coronary artery

LCAT lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

LCL lateral collateral ligament

LCME Liaison Committee on Medical


LCV lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

LDH lactate dehydrogenase

LDL low-density lipoprotein

LES lower esophageal sphincter

Leu leucine

LFA-1 leukocyte function-associated

antigen 1

LFT liver function test

LGN lateral geniculate nucleus

LH luteinizing hormone

LLQ left lower quadrant

LM light microscopy

LMN lower motor neuron

LSE Libman-Sacks endocarditis

LT leukotriene

LV left ventricle, left ventricular

Lys lysine

MAC membrane attack complex

MAO monoamine oxidase

MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor

MAP mean arterial pressure

MCA middle cerebral artery

MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin


MCL medial collateral ligament

MCP metacarpophalangeal [joint]

MCV mean corpuscular volume

MEN multiple endocrine neoplasia

MEOS microsomal ethanol oxidizing system

Met methionine

MGN medial geniculate nucleus

MHC major histocompatibility complex

MHPSA Mental Health Professional Shortage


MI myocardial infarction

MIT monoiodotyrosine

MLF medial longitudinal fasciculus

MMR measles, mumps, rubella [vaccine]

6-MP 6-mercaptopurine

MPO myeloperoxidase

MPTP 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-


MRI magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid

MRSA methicillin-resistant S. aureus

MS multiple sclerosis

MSH melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Abbreviation Meaning

MTP metatarsophalangeal [joint]

MUA/P Medically Underserved Area and


MVO2 myocardial oxygen consumption

NAD+ oxidized nicotinamide adenine


NADH reduced nicotinamide adenine


NADP+ oxidized nicotinamide adenine

dinucleotide phosphate

NADPH reduced nicotinamide adenine

dinucleotide phosphate

NBME National Board of Medical


NBOME National Board of Osteopathic

Medical Examiners

NBPME National Board of Podiatric Medical


NDA New Drug Application

NE norepinephrine

NF neurofibromatosis

NH3 ammonia

NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes


NK natural killer [cells]

NPV negative predictive value

NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

OAA oxaloacetic acid

OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder

OCP oral contraceptive pill

OMT osteopathic manipulative technique

OPV oral polio vaccine

OR odds ratio

PA posteroanterior

PABA para-aminobenzoic acid

PAH para-aminohippuric acid

PALS periarterial lymphatic sheath

PAN polyarteritis nodosa

P-ANCA perinuclear antineutrophil

cytoplasmic antibody

PAS periodic acid Schiff

PC pyruvate carboxylase

PCL posterior cruciate ligament

PCP phencyclidine hydrochloride,

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

PCR polymerase chain reaction

PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

PD posterior descending [artery]

PDA patent ductus arteriosus

PDE phosphodiesterase

PDH pyruvate dehydrogenase

PE pulmonary embolism

PEP phosphoenolpyruvate

PFK phosphofructokinase

PFT pulmonary function test

PG prostaglandin



Abbreviation Meaning

Phe phenylalanine

PICA posterior inferior cerebellar artery

PID pelvic inflammatory disease

PIP proximal interphalangeal [joint]

PIP2 phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

PK pyruvate kinase

PKD polycystic kidney disease

PKU phenylketonuria

PML progressive multifocal


PMN polymorphonuclear [leukocyte]

PNET primitive neuroectodermal tumor

PNH paroxysmal nocturnal


PNS peripheral nervous system

POMC pro-opiomelanocortin

PPRF paramedian pontine reticular


PPV positive predictive value

PRPP phosphoribosylpyrophosphate

PSA prostate-specific antigen

PSS progressive systemic sclerosis

PT prothrombin time

PTH parathyroid hormone

PTHrP parathyroid hormone-related protein

PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder

PTT partial thromboplastin time

PV plasma volume

RA rheumatoid arthritis

RBC red blood cell

RBF renal blood flow

RCA right coronary artery

RDS respiratory distress syndrome

RDW red-cell distribution width

REM rapid eye movement

RER rough endoplasmic reticulum

RNA ribonucleic acid

RPF renal plasma flow

RPR rapid plasma reagin

RR relative risk, respiratory rate

rRNA ribosomal ribonucleic acid

RS Reed-Sternberg [cells]

RSV respiratory syncytial virus

RUQ right upper quadrant

RV right ventricle, right ventricular,

residual volume

RVH right ventricular hypertrophy

SA sinoatrial, subarachnoid

SAM S-adenosylmethionine

SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome

SC subcutaneous

SCID severe combined immunodeficiency


SD standard deviation, subdural

SEM standard error of the mean

SERM selective estrogen receptor modulator

Abbreviation Meaning

SER smooth endoplasmic reticulum

SEVIS Student and Exchange Visitor

Information System

SEVP Student and Exchange Visitor


SGOT serum glutamic oxaloacetic


SGPT serum glutamic pyruvate


SHBG sex hormone-binding globulin

SIADH syndrome of inappropriate

antidiuretic hormone

SLE systemic lupus erythematosus

SLL small lymphocytic lymphoma

SMA superior mesenteric artery

SMX sulfamethoxazole

SNc substantia nigra compacta

snRMP small nuclear ribonucleoprotein

SOD superoxide dismutase

SR sarcoplasmic reticulum

SRP sponsoring residency program

SRS-A slow-reacting substance of


SS single stranded

ssDNA single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid

SSPE subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

SSRI selective serotonin reuptake


ssRNA single-stranded ribonucleic acid

STD sexually transmitted disease

STN subthalamic nucleus

SV sinus venosus, stroke volume

SVC superior vena cava

SVT supraventricular tachycardia

tl/2 half-life

T3 triiodothyronine

T4 thyroxine

TB tuberculosis

TBG thyroxine-binding globulin

TBW total body water

3TC dideoxythiacytidine [lamivudine]

TCA tricarboxylic acid [cycle], tricyclic


Tc cell cytotoxic T cell

TCR T-cell receptor

TD50 median toxic dose

TFT thyroid function test

TG triglyceride

TGF transforming growth factor

THB tetrahydrobiopterin

Th cell helper T cell

THF tetrahydrofolate

Thr threonine

TIBC total iron-binding capacity

TLC total lung capacity

TMP-SMX trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole


Abbreviation Meaning

TN trigeminal neuralgia

TNF tumor necrosis factor

TNM tumor, node, metastases [staging]

TOEFL Test of English as a Foreign


tPA tissue plasminogen activator

TPP thiamine pyrophosphate

TPR total peripheral resistance

TRAP tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

TRH thyrotropin-releasing hormone

tRNA transfer ribonucleic acid

Trp tryptophan

TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSI thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin

TSS toxic shock syndrome

TSST toxic shock syndrome toxin

TTP thrombotic thrombocytopenic


TV tidal volume

TXA thromboxane

UA urinalysis

UCV Underground Clinical Vignettes

UDP uridine diphosphate

UMN upper motor neuron

URI upper respiratory infection

USDA United States Department of


Abbreviation Meaning

USIA United States Information Agency

USMLE United States Medical Licensing


UTI urinary tract infection

UV ultraviolet

VA ventral anterior, Veterans


Val valine

VC vital capacity

Vd volume of distribution

VDRL Venereal Disease Research


VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor

VF ventricular fibrillation

VIP vasoactive intestinal peptide

VIPoma vasoactive intestinal polypeptidesecreting


VLDL very low density lipoprotein

VMA vanillylmandelic acid

VPL ventral posterior nucleus, lateral

VPM ventral posterior nucleus, medial

VPN ventral posterior nucleus

V/Q ventilation/perfusion [ratio]

VSD ventricular septal defect

VZV varicella-zoster virus

WBC white blood cell

XR X-linked recessive


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